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Global Development Studies
DEVS 100
Richard Day

Study Guide for DEVS Exam Week 1 Introduction Foucault ‘The Unities of Discourse’ and ‘Discursive Formations’ - We must rid ourselves of a whole mass of notions each of which, in its own way, diversifies the theme of continuity - Asuccession of dispersed events, to link them to one and the same organizing principle, to subject theme to the exemplary power of life - Discourse analysis - Linked systems of subjects, objects, signifiers, and patterns of regularity - Out of these systems emerge many TRUTHS - There is always resistance - Must remember there are many different truths and we must hear them all out Collins ‘Excerpt from Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment’ - The different discourses that affect individuals - White females have an advantage over black females even though they both to deal with sexists - Privilege is defined by relation to the other - Black feminism - Expands the focus of analysis from merely describing the similarities and differences distinguishing these systems of oppression and focuses greater attention on how they interconnect - Black women do a lot of community work and have a great deal of experience and believe that power as energy can be fostered by creative acts of resistance - Matrix of domination - Depending on the context, an individual may be an oppressor, a member of an oppressed group, or simultaneously oppressor and oppressed - The dominant order has a sense of superior and inferior - People experience and resist oppression on three levels: the level of personal biography; the group or community level of the cultural context created by race, class and gender and on the third level of social institutions controlled by the dominant group: namely, schools, churches, the media, and other formal organizations - Oppression is filled with such contradictions because these approaches fail to recognize that a matrix of domination contains few pure victims or oppressors. Each individual derives varying amounts of penalty and privilege - Empowerment involves rejecting the dimensions of knowledge, whether personal, cultural, or institutional, that perpetuate objectification and dehumanization,African-American women and other individuals in subordinate groups become empowered when we understand and use those dimensions of our individual, group, and disciplinary ways of knowing that foster our humanity as fully human subjects Matrix of Domination - Amultidimensional sphere that adjoins all of the different aspects of the dominant order - It compares where you stand on all the axes and it shows how far you are from the centre of the dominant order - Centre of the dominant order is like a black hole. It is the dominating ideology and it influences a majority of peoples ideas and beliefs if they do not criticize what is being said to them - People do not recognize they are engulfed in the dominant order until they step back- like a fish bowl Week 2 Multiculturalism and Immigration : The Other(s) Within This week we will investigate the trope of Canada as The Great White North, a formation that simultaneous holds, and holds off, a multiplicity of problematic Others. Baldwin ‘Introduction: Where is the Great White North? Spatializing History, Historizing Whiteness’ Canada has created a false identity that pushes people to support them the dominant white culture by endorsing the ‘traditional’ Canadian life style. This forces people to uphold the Canadian ideals because going against them would cause debate about our great country and the ‘White purity’ that is it. - Great white north is an enduring Canadian myth - “White” parallels a double movement in our social and cultural history both to assert the dominance of whiteness as a cultural norm and to build a sense of national identity closely to nature and wilderness - Canada is the only substantial country in the world with no cultural linguistic or tribal homogeneity, not any distinct revolutionary, ideological, or geopolitical tradition to give it an organizing principle - Multiple memories rather than a monolithic collective memory - Canadian diversity was born out of the struggle with Britain to contain all 13 colonies - Glenn Gould is an iconic Canadian arts advocate that has helped construct the Great White North - Non-whites and Indigenous peoples have been excluded from a national identity norm from one degree or another - Physical “north” is a mutating landscape whose horizons seem forever in retreat. It’s meaning has shifted overtime significantly. - “Great White North” refers to a stolid and timeless terms to the snowy territory north of the Arctic Circle, spatially remote, ahistorical, pre-human, but at others, it is synonymous with the country as a whole, its people, and the values upon which the nation was built, a creation of a population forging a common destiny Robertson ‘The True White North: Reflection on Being Canadian’ Believes that Multiculturalism is good, because it allows for a sense of self. It does not endorse colonialism, but that is how we came to be. We are a country full of rich experience and people that make up our great world. Canada is a mishmash of everyone, who all believe the same thing, we are proud to be Canadian. - Goes on and contradicts himself by saying we have a great sense of togetherness and self, but we only have a sense of not being the USA. He continuously contradicts himself. He touches on facts, and then ignores them by making up some bullshit - Canada is a nation that was born out of the troubles of the United States and their fight for freedom from Britain, and we share the tribulations of entering the New World, which includes a ‘rich’immigrant experience and a prolonged colonial nurturing - As Canadians we are notAmericans - No cultural linguistic or tribal homogeneity- (Residential schools???) - Insistence on retaining for what we now call first nations - Shade tree of benign colonialism- colonialism was not always consenting or benign - North- we have a sense of nature - innate and in our blood- except we are multicultural are we not? Kymlicka ‘The Current State of Multiculturalism in Canada’ Believes multiculturalism is a good thing because it upholds the Canadian image as a tolerating accepting place. Multiculturalism is beneficial to everyone because it allows Them to become more like Us. - The article was paid for by the Canadian state - Says supporters argue that immigration is good and it integrates immigrants... This makes them feel more welcome in society - People argue that ghettoization and balkanization isolate these individuals and emphasize the differences- is that not what we want? Expression of culture? Is that not what multiculturalism is??? - Immigrants in Canada as well as visible minorities fare better then most in western cultures - “Native-Born Canadians”- White people-Are more likely to accept immigrants, These immigrants have a high sense of pride, and experience the freedoms of democracy and multiculturalism - Children of immigrants have “better educational outcomes” and “actually out-perform children of non-immigrant parents - Almost complete absence of immigrant or visible minority ghettoes in Canada - Canadians not as anti-Muslin as OWDs - All of this is an effect of mcism as state policy - The 35-year debate in Canada between those who argue that mcism promotes civic integration and those who argue that it promotes ethnic isolation can now be safely be put to rest - Maybe, but there are those who reject the terms of this debate as such - They tend not to be state theorists i.e. they tend not to be so highly rewarded, but they still do Multiculturalism Unveiled- Movie Does not believe in Multiculturalism, because it really does not allow for identity formation, it just shifts people to the western perspective of the world. Not actually accepting. - Shows how individuals have been integrated into one mob of people who are all following like sheep the mind set and path that has been set up for us Stasiulis and Bakan ‘Underdevelopment, Structural Adjustment and Gendered Migration from the West Indies and Philippines’ Against Multiculturalism because it creates a separation of people and ideas that are incorrect. Makes people who have a power over others to feel like they are tolerating them. - Canada is heading towards increasing de-citizenization, lack of respect for human rights, and in-security/securitization under global/Canadian neoliberalism/neoconservatism. There are both ‘push’and ‘pull’factors, esp for women in global south. This is ‘business as usual’in Canada. Kymlicka’s vision was and is a fantasy. - Self as the great white north creates Others - Others seem to be dangerous and We are tolerating them On One is Illegal ‘The Wrongs of the Canadian Immigration System’ Says that there is a huge disconnect between what Canadian citizens are told about our immigration system, and the people who are being accepted in are treated poorly, even though they have more education then a majority of the citizens in Canada. This creates huge brain drain. - Canadian Immigration system is outta whack - They only accept highly skilled workers (lawyers, doctors,) - Whom are allowed to stay only until their visas expire so they do not have the ability to move their families into Canada because they do not have the visa - This means they are unable to be employed on any long term scale Week 3 Settler-Indigenous Relations: The Other(s) When they came to Turtle Island, the English pulled off a most amazing coup. Somehow, they not only made everyone who came here after them feel that they had to bow to their ways – as ‘immigrants’ – but also those who came before – les Québécois - and even those who have been here since the beginning of time (indigenous peoples). Of course, The English were just applying a method they had previously used to create a ‘United’ Kingdom, which was now turning into a global Empire. And as Canadians hoisted themselves into existence, they showed that they understood very well how this sort of thing was done. Bob Lovelace SPEAKER Post colonial, anti-capitalist perspective speaking from the outside view that is no longer partaking in the ‘black hole’ of the dominant order. Activist on human rights focusing on Native relations - He highlighted how the discovery of the west was not all the dominant perspective played it out to be - There was already trade happening with the native population happening in south america, but it was the first time anyone ever documented it in Europe. They thought themselves higher then the Native population who lived there, so when obtaining gold they did not stop when it required taking lives - Talked about documents such as the Royal Proclamation which were written solely for the purposes of market expansion, profit and land domination (commerce, manufacture and navigation) - DECOLONIZATION - the difference in the way language is used between Indigenous peoples and the dominant order Tobias ‘ Protection, Civilization, Assimilation: An outline History of Canada’s Indian Policy’ Indigenous assimilation was brought about through many different laws set up by the Canadian government that required the Native’s to follow along, and if they did not they would be convicted. They signed documents giving up many of their rights to the Europeans, even though they did not understand. They were blatantly taken advantage of, with no regard from the government. Got swept out even though they were there first. - Illustrates a history whereby the dominant colonial government sought to assimilate the Indigenous peoples through documents such as the IndianAct -the ultimate goal of government was to eliminate Indigenous peoples altogether through programs such as residential schooling or "location tickets" - Enfranchisement was often against the wishes of band members- original cultures and languages were suppressed - Mainstream culture sees documents like the IndianAct or the Royal Proclamation as "nouns" -Indigenous peoples see treaties as verbs - They are seen as processes and relationships between the two parties, rather than static and material documents - The issue is a living process that must be worked upon in partnership as "brothers" not as "fathers and sons" - Legal structures are very important here (See Tobias article on the IndianAct - protection, civilization, assimilation). This amounts to ‘development’via physical and cultural genocide. The salt water thesis- Aterritory that is geographically separate and is distinctly different ethically and/or culturally from that governing it Alfred and Lowe, Coulthard New Socialist Articles ‘What are Warrior Societies’ They talk about how to not give into the dominant power that is the Canadian Government, we should not just roll over and let people take us over. We have the right to our own beliefs and we should not be forced to do something that is against our rights. Which is exactly what the Native population in Canada is being forced to do. They are disregarded because they do not follow the same belief system the dominant order does. - Intellectual and cultural self-determination - Spiritual freedom - All come from the same idea- christianity- and we all need to be able to deal with our own way of health and healing Coulthard - It is indigenous peoples job to bring about indigenous resurgence - according toAndrea Smith, Native women must fight for their own autonomy. Regan ‘A Transformative Framework for Decolonizing Canada’ - The discourse about colonialism is disquieting - There needs to be struggle in order to lay out a path to coexistence, and that the process of being uncomfortable is essential for non- indigenous people to move from being enemy to adversary to ally - We need to learn to listen differently - To take a path that enables us to maintain hope in the face of despair not a utopian path that glosses over the very real and substantive damage that has been done in our name, but a path that reveals the ‘beauty that exists in hard places’if we learn to look and listen differently Guest Lectures- Toad Talk about the hardships that have taken place within the aboriginal communities because of wrongdoings in the past. They are taken advantage of in many ways, and there is little in terms of trying to benefit Canadian Aboriginals Week 4 Canada’s Place in the Global Capitalist Economy Using the paradigm of world systems theory, Canada can be seen as a 'core' country with respect to most of the rest of the world – it has managed, after all, to somehow maintain membership in that most exclusive of economic clubs, the G8. However, like all nation-states, this position is ambiguous. Internally, in relation to the power concentrated in south-central Canada, most of the other territories claimed by the Canadian state are about as peripheral as it gets. And, of course, in relation to the USA, Canada as a whole is seen as nothing more than a bunch of split-headed yokels, who send down trees, minerals, oil, power, and water like there's no tomorrow. Of course, there are many people who don't like this, and this week we'll talk about those who protest against what is going on, in the hope of making it better. Roy ‘The New American Century’ The states are using their new found power from the world economy to do what they want. They have convinced their citizens that everything they do is to defend democracy, but really it is to protect the assets they have over seas (oil). When other countries to not stand beside them it suggests that the government has little control over the country and that they are caught up in the pockets of large corporations - States are using hegemonic power to use their new imperialism so everything in the world benefits them. - Basically hating everything governmental. - Racism is part of the problem- but the government keeps promoting it. - Need to move against this hegemonic power as a group - Our resistance began with the refusal to accept the legitimacy of US occupation in Iraq, - This suggests that the major corporations that are profiting from the destruction of Iraq have a huge hand in what is happening Norcliffe ‘Canada in a Global Economy’ There are many debates about Canada’s place in the Global Economy, because what it has contributed is not usually known to the world, and the individuals move to the states where they have the ability to make more money. We do not have a good enough footing in the economy because we are still reliant on natural resources, so once we are depleted of those we are in big dodo. It is a critique of neoliberal globalization, not just one type of globalization because they are all different - Does not believe Canada to be a full Core country because it still has a huge focus on natural resources export. - Suggests that we have to become the global resistance, in order for it impossible for the Empire to materially make it’s aims - There was huge resistance when Canada began to trade with Europe, but it still happened anyways. - Large powers that govern the way the global economy is run are govern by Washington. (IMF, WB) - The States wields an alarming amount of power for a democratic process.. They have the power of veto-Dictatorship? - States that globalization is a socially constructed concept. - Important to acknowledge other ways of working together as a global community - Goes through examples of how Canada has participated in the Global community: John Cabot’s resource depletion, Alexander Graham Bells’s technological dependence/brain drain, C.D. Howe’s continental integration (war-time factories), Walt Disney’s cultural deterritorilzation, Conrad Black’s new versions of power (capitalist and private expansion.) - Anti-dominant view, Week 5 Hide the Flag: Canadian Corporations Abroad As befits a semi-core, multicultural, peaceable kingdom, Canada has long played a dual game in foreign policy. On the one hand, the Canadian state tries to set itself up as a ‘moral leader’, while on the other it uses this same stance to let others – and itself – off the hook when acting from high principle is going to cost too much money/power/advantage. (e.g. the recent scuttling of the Kyoto accord). Canadian Mining Companies in Latin America (Under rich earth) Shows the affects of Canadian mining companies in Latin America, and the complete disregard for the environment and the people living there. They destroy the land, underpay the workers, and abuse the governmental regulations set up in that country. Pay off people that will be able to look past what they are really doing. Sustainable Mining Outlines what mining companies consider to be ‘stable mining’ Clark ‘Canadian Mining Companies in Latin America: Community Rights and Corporate Responsibility’ Summarized conference on the tension between community rights and corporate social responsibility for mining companies. - Pro-government, environmental, anti-deregulation - Canadian Mining Companies in LatinAmerica: Community Rights and Corporate Responsibility - Canada experienced expansion in the 90’s with mining companies going into Central and South America, bringing profound socio-economic change and conflict to numerous rural communities - Productive activity brings the private control of production by foreign investors into direct conflict with communities where production takes place in more explicitly social form - Relations around Production in mineral exploitation, the distribution of related costs and benefits, questions of social power and the conflict between distinct interpretations of ‘development’ - 3 Principle these arose in the conference 1. The role of state in both canada and latin america, as it reconstructs and is restructured in the globalized economy 2. Tension between corporate attempts to justify and regulate their own conduct and community efforts to mediate corporate involvement in local development 3. The ways by which civil society throughout theAmericas can work to ensure the social and ecological sustainability of mineral extraction - The role of the state in organizing mineral extraction; the tension between the developmental priorities of workers and communities on the one hand and mining investors on the other.And the means by which civil society actors throughout theAmericas might assert greater influence over decisions relating to regional mining investment - State playing large role in deregulating the national market and serves as essential functions when protecting the mineral investors through both legal and coercive means - Corporate responsibility with no state regulation has led to mineral extraction that has exacerbated rural poverty and brought about persistent conflict with workers and communities - Latin America’s government is no longer economically relevant, this means that people rely on transnational’s. - Canada’s gov. does seem not to care about community rights abroad. - Latin America has reduced taxes for foreign investors, deregulated land, and got rid of environmental regulations. - Informed consent of mining intentions is a communities right, but the term “informed consent is highly” questioned. -Corporate social responsibility (CSR) says that profit maximization is harmonious with community interests, which is false. - Key aspects of the debate: Livelihood (employment), Cultural Heritage, labor rights, security of person, and environmental rights. - The article believes that state involvement is key. - The conference outlined 6 items that would need to be part of the legal frame work. 1 Usage rights. 2 Rights of collective organization. 3 Rights of Participation and Consultation. 4 Access to Information. 5 Access to Expertise. 6 Right to Self-Determination Whittington ‘Canadian mining firms worst for Environment, right: Report’ Talks about how bad the Canadian mines are from an environmental, anti- mining/government perspective. - Says that Canadian mines are really horrible in terms of environmental, cultural, and ethical impacts. - Bill C-300 is going to try to tighten mining behavior. - Accuses Canadian mining companies of being offenders of environmental, human rights and others abuses around the world - Canadian companies are the worst offenders, their issues go far beyond that of workplace issues - More likely to engage in community conflicts, environmental and unethical behavior - Wants to pass Bill C-300 to lower these offenses - Supporters say it is needed to curb a long history of abuses in the developing work involving Canadian mining companies. BUT industry has waged an all-out campaign against legislation it says would damage it’s commercial interests, subject it to unfair accusations and attempt to enforce Canadian policy in sovereign nations McVeigh ‘Biofuels land grab in Kenya’s Tana Delta fuels talk of war’ Environmental, how it has impacted. - Biofules land grab in Kenya’s Tana Delta fuels talk of war - Empty area where a sugar cane plantation once stood. - Evicted villagers, destroyed generations of farmed fields, water resources and raising tribal tension - Land was apparently taken for ENVIRONMENTAL reasons... - Land grab! - Wildlife, ecological surroundings are resources destroyed as well as infiltrating homes - The natives to the land have no rights when the government makes a deal with companies who are willing to pay them money - Lands around the water rich Tana Delta are getting developed which evicts residents or leaves them to die of thirst. - They are getting evicted for the growth of sugar-cane which is going to be used for the environmentally friendly biofuel program- IRONY CrimeInc ‘Excerpt from Expect Resistance: A Crimethink field Manual’ We all are in a society where we do what we want. There is no thinking about the consequences. We have a need to be ‘electrified’ all the time. We need constant stimulation. We buy into the governments bullshit and follow them like sheep. We mindlessly continue with only our pocketbooks to guide us. We have been turned against each other, -You are what you think, feel, do, and say. - The desires you have are shaped by society and these are highly capitalistic. - You should be a revolutionary because it is a way to engage with injustice rather then just sitting around and feeling sorry for yourself. - The trick is to find ways to indulge your programming that simultaneously subvert it- satisfy old desires and conditions that foster new ones - When following leaders- follow leaders who help you dispose of the pedestal you put them on- if you wish to lead others, find equals who will help dethrone you, if you have to fight against others, find wars you can wage for everyones benefit - When we want to rebel against the limits of a culture imposes we call it ‘ideology’or ‘conformity’; but we cannot escape culture itself- we carry it with us as we flee, leaving a trail of it in our wake - Languages enforce their constraints upon us- that is to say, those constraints are US- but every time we adjust a concept or subvert an expectation, we remake ourselves Week 6 Warm But Fuzzy: Canadian Foreign Policy As befits a semi-core, multicultural, peaceable kingdom, Canada has long played a dual game in foreign policy. On the one hand, the Canadian state tries to set itself up as a ‘moral leader’, while on the other it uses this same stance to let others – and itself – off the hook when acting from high principle is going to cost too much money/power/advantage. (e.g. the recent scuttling of the Kyoto accord). Keating ‘Canada and the World Order: The Multilateral Tradition in Canadian Foreign’ Pro-government. Multilateralism as a foreign policy. Multilateralism refers to one power ruling over many. Could this not be detrimental if someone in power becomes corrupted? There is no way in which sovereignty can be expressed. There is a dominating power that does not look out for the benefits of the individual communities, which are all different and cannot be governed all the same way. - Multilateralism is a good idea and has been persistently prominent in the conduct of post-war Canadian foreign policy is not to argue that is has been the only strategy pursued by Ottawa that is has solved all of the Canada’s foreign policy problems, or it has been an invaluable contribution to global peace and justice or that is has invaluable contributions to global peace and justice - Effective in securing a number of important foreign policy objectives - For Canada to have a voice there needs to be multilateralism. - Canadian foreign policy has always been trying to got for multilateralism -Cold war initiated Canada as a mediator. -Strong focus on neoliberal policies of good governance. - The legitimacy of the state has been challenged but ideas of good governance are still popular. Potter ‘Introduction: Canada’s Warm But Fuzzy International Image’ Image is important in today global vision, because it means international relations are looked upon differently, and they have more respect for you because you have a reputation. Canada must maintain and strive for one of peace. Pro-government and pro-dominant order. This is silly because we often do not uphold out ‘global reputation’ but our citizens still believe it. - If a country does not have an image they will be thought of as part of the American information empire and this may result in lost of sovereignty. - Do to information revolution the idea of diplomacy has changed. It’s become more important. - What a country does in the international sphere depicts the image they will get. Ex. Canada and peacekeeping. - Canada must advance this brand to be successful, more use of soft power. - Soft power does not equate to being good at diplomacy. - People don’t really “know” about Canada, this hurts our ability to have a chance at diplomacy -Canadian media does not do enough to promote Canada. Agamben ‘The State of Exception as a Paradigm for Government’ Anti-government, the state enacts exceptions to maintain power, but these exceptions become common practice. Like the 9-11 scare and world on terror. They now have an overabundance of unnecessary power that does not abide many human rights and violates people power and means of free will. - There is an exception to the law and the sovereign makes it to maintain power but keeps the exception around longer then they have to. -This policy becomes normal where there is always an exception to a law. Therefore the state of exception is to maintain control at all times. - It’s difficult to know when the exception is actually needed or you are being told through propaganda that it is needed ex. Some aspects of 911 and the USA Patriot Act Week 7 The Wars Abroad: Canada’s Piece-Keeping Forces Throughout the first half of the course, we've been seeing how – for some people – there is a multifaceted – but nonetheless very sharp - disjunction between the fantasy of the Canada, and what is actually done in the name of that formation. Nowhere does this become more apparent than in the declining role of peacekeeping, or 'helping' others
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