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Second Semester DEVS Exam Cram.docx

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Queen's University
Global Development Studies
DEVS 100
Richard Day

IDEOLOGIES AND TERMSIDEOLOGIES AND TERMSIDEOLOGIES AND TERMSIDEOLOGIES AND TERMS General Analysis Words can shape the way we all think Being careful with the words we use day to day in order to describe development or the countries we label can label our own intellects and what we believe inTo identify the ethical dilemmas associated with foreign aid and development practiceGlobal Ethic Do our moral duties extend beyond our families neighbours and fellow citizensWest created welfare systems to ensure no citizen would be left to die or suffer from povertyWelfaremorally right and pragmatic o Unemployment insurance income assistance universal health care and education ocrime rate healthy and educated populationstronger economyWeek 4 Anti Market Theories of Development Pro Market Developmentuniversal development introduced 200 years ago Industrial Revolution and Capitalisms promise of wealthcapitalism supported by Adam Smith in Wealth of Nations capitalism a system organizing production in units where private owners have capital to buy means of production Those who dont own capital sell their labour on the market to the owners for wages People must reinvest in the economyto stay competitive and maintain growth This division of labour created disparity but an invisible hand of state regulation in free markets is also needed to enforce market rules manage social unrest address market failures this increased production but was not shared by an increase in demand since workers werent paid the value of the product they produced means capitalism requires expanding markets through commerce or conquest to thrivepromise of wealth broken workers werent paid value of product and companies brokedown when crises arose rdst capitalism traps 3 world because theyre dependent to trade desired by 1 world and cant break tiescritiqued by socialists because commodities should not be for sale because economies cant regulate themselves due to desire for profit Socialists support state development because it protects industrial sectors and increase their capacity to produce quality goods while managing agricultural transitions to help it adjust to industrializationduring these years new forms of capitalism emerged along with critiques Keynesian policies John Keynes capitalism needs planning state ownership and aided directing of economic production Free market needs regulation to lesser risks of economic crises needs socialism to develop stableDependency theory Raul PrebischPaul Baran imperialism is vital to understanding development because capitalism is an informal type of it capitalism exploits smaller nationsbasing development off of historyother countries progress may work for one country and underdevelop another meaning that socialism was the way to catching up with core countriescapitalism underdevelops nations by creating a hierarchy on transfers of surpluses from underdeveloped to developed countries need to develop with nationalistic approach Week 5 Anti Market Theories of DevelopmentState has important role in all approaches to developmentfocuses on theories that encourage state involvement in the economy Marxismbased off of Karl Marxs theory of development capitalism regarded as stage in Marxs process of precapitalist societiescapitalism would be taken over by socialism communal ownershipcapitalisms central point was relationship of capital and labour imperialism is the highest form of capitalism Marxism believed communism was equality of society and foundation for utopia focused too much on economic factors gender ecology culture inequalitiesMarxs theory broken Capitalism not needed to transition to communism in Russia China each stage of social development has a means of production and relations of production 1 Ancient Feudalism Asiatic Ancient Societies have communal ownership of basic economic resourcesFeudalism in western societies based on agriculture in large states owned by rulers but lesser citizens allowed to work on land if they paid landlords of rulerAsiatic found in eastern societies where different classes dominated economy and state Only important technology like irrigation was centralized 2 Capitalism society divided by those who have means of production bourgeoisie and those who dont proletariat Those who dont own means of production sell labour for wagesgoal is to create a surplus or profit that exceeds basic needs bourgeoisie mainlyvulnerable to economic crisis because of privatization and constantly changing markets capitalism needs constantly expanding markets to survive3 SocialismCommunism communal ownership of production by state socialism or people communismindustrialization is used as a way to stop struggle for living among citizens and needs are metsocialism contains growth of capitalism with nationalistic productionmeans of production things needed for people to produce goods tools crops machines relations of production division of labour Who does what in production what is produced and how Leaves open unequal decisions and power mode of production social relation system organizing production including relations of production as well as state legal system cultural norms and ideologiesNeo Marxismquestion Marxs interpretation of society because of European bias and capitalist thrivePaul Baran and Sweezy famous neomarxistsbelieved capitalism was in state of monopoly where rich companies dominate and prey on poorer parts of the worldpoor nations should turn socialist to block tradesave funds for development from companiesStructuralistsassociated with CEPAL or United Nations Economic Commission for Latin Americalow levels of economic growth and standards of living wouldnt improve through free trade world economic structure has changed since UK industrial revolution wrong tacticsfree trade was not the way to Latin American developmentstate intervention needed to protect national industries from west corporationsimport substitution industrialization lifting trade barriers to protect national corporations from more efficient firms that sell goods cheaper High import tariffs made sure foreign firm prices were raised so domestic ones can compete involved redistributing land so small scale farmers have larger plots to increase production promoting poverty reduction and national developmentstructuralist influence declined in Latin America because of agrarian reforms and increased state intervention policies despite need to import new technology Latin America shifted to more exportoriented industrializationDependency Theoriesanother key Latin American theory of developmentunderdeveloped due to capitalism exploitation of periphery resourcessupported by Andre Gunder Franklatin America dependent to core countries in trade system consequences of this external oriented production produce exports cheap imports expensive unequal exchange dependent on rich for manufactured goods trade concentration periphery trades with mostly core countries meaning they need to break from concentrationstate intervention needed seen in Africa and Latin Americacapitalism is autonomous industrial developmentthis theory unrealistic because western countries methods of divide and conquer threats and severed ties periphery risk economic disaster if detach from core providers
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