IDEOLOGIES AND TERMS – IDEOLOGIES AND TERMS – IDEOLOGIES AND TERMS – IDEOLOGIES AND TERMS
General Analysis: Words can shape the way we all think. Being careful with the words we use day to day in order to describe
development or the countries we label can label our own intellects and what we believe in.
To identify the ethical dilemmas associated with foreign aid and development practice
Global Ethic: Do our moral duties extend beyond our families, neighbours and fellow citizens?
- West created welfare systems to ensure no citizen would be left to die or suffer from poverty
- Welfare = morally right and pragmatic
o Unemployment insurance, income assistance, universal health care and education
o < crime rate, healthy and educated population=stronger economy
Week 4: Anti Market Theories of Development
Pro Market Development
- universal development introduced 200 years ago. (Industrial Revolution and Capitalism’s promise of wealth)
- capitalism supported by Adam Smith in Wealth of Nations.
- capitalism: a system organizing production in units where private owners have capital to buy means of production. Those who
don’t own capital sell their labour on the market to the owners for wages. People must reinvest in the economy to stay competitive
and maintain growth. This division of labour created disparity, but an invisible hand of state regulation in free markets is also needed
to enforce market rules, manage social unrest, address market failures.
- this increased production, but was not shared by an increase in demand since workers weren’t paid the value of the product they
produced. (means capitalism requires expanding markets through commerce or conquest to thrive)
- promise of wealth broken: workers weren’t paid value of product and companies brokedown when crises arose.
- capitalism traps 3rd world because they’re dependent to trade desired by 1st world and can’t break ties.
- critiqued by socialists because commodities should not be for sale, because economies can’t regulate themselves due
to desire for profit. Socialists support state development because it protects industrial sectors and increase their
capacity to produce quality goods while managing agricultural transitions to help it adjust to industrialization.
during these years, new forms of capitalism emerged along with critiques:
Keynesian policies (John Keynes): capitalism needs planning, state ownership, and aided directing of economic production. Free
market needs regulation to lesser risks of economic crises. (needs socialism to develop stable)
Dependency theory (Raul Prebisch & Paul Baran): imperialism is vital to understanding development because capitalism is an
informal type of it. (capitalism exploits smaller nations)
- basing development off of history/other countries progress may work for one country and underdevelop another, meaning that
socialism was the way to catching up with core countries.
- capitalism underdevelops nations by creating a hierarchy on transfers of surpluses from underdeveloped to developed countries.
(need to develop with nationalistic approach)
Week 5: Anti Market Theories of Development
- State has important role in all approaches to development.
- focuses on theories that encourage state involvement in the economy.
- based off of Karl Marx’s theory of development.
- capitalism regarded as stage in Marx’s process of pre-capitalist societies.
- capitalism would be taken over by socialism. (communal ownership)
- capitalism’s central point was relationship of capital and labour. (imperialism is the highest form of capitalism)
- Marxism believed communism was equality of society and foundation for utopia.
- focused too much on economic factors. (gender, ecology, culture inequalities?)
- Marx’s theory broken. (Capitalism not needed to transition to communism in Russia, China)
each stage of social development has a means of production and relations of production:
1: Ancient, Feudalism, Asiatic: Ancient Societies have communal ownership of basic economic resources.
: Feudalism in western societies, based on agriculture in large states owned by rulers but lesser citizens allowed to work on land if
they paid landlords of ruler.
: Asiatic found in eastern societies where different classes dominated economy and state.
: Only important technology like irrigation was centralized.
2: Capitalism: society divided by those who have means of production (bourgeoisie) and those who don’t (proletariat). : Those who
don’t own means of production sell labour for wages.
: goal is to create a surplus or profit that exceeds basic needs. (bourgeoisie mainly)
: vulnerable to economic crisis because of privatization and constantly changing markets.
: capitalism needs constantly expanding markets to survive.
3: Socialism/Communism: communal ownership of production by state (socialism) or people (communism)
: industrialization is used as a way to stop struggle for living among citizens and needs are met.
: socialism contains growth of capitalism with nationalistic production.
means of production: things needed for people to produce goods. (tools, crops, machines)
relations of production: division of labour. Who does what in production, what is produced and how? Leaves open unequal
decisions and power.
mode of production: social relation system organizing production, including relations of production as well as state, legal system,
cultural norms, and ideologies.
- question Marx’s interpretation of society because of European bias and capitalist thrive.
- Paul Baran and Sweezy famous neo-marxists.
- believed capitalism was in state of monopoly, where rich companies dominate and prey on poorer parts of the world.
- poor nations should turn socialist to block trade/save funds for development from companies.
- associated with CEPAL or United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America.
- low levels of economic growth and standards of living wouldn’t improve through free trade.
- world economic structure has changed since UK industrial revolution. (wrong tactics)
- free trade was not the way to Latin American development.
- state intervention needed to protect national industries from west corporations.
import substitution industrialization: lifting trade barriers to protect national corporations from more efficient firms that sell goods
cheaper. High import tariffs made sure foreign firm prices were raised so domestic ones can compete.
- involved redistributing land so small scale farmers have larger plots to increase production, promoting poverty reduction and
- structuralist influence declined in Latin America because of agrarian reforms and increased state intervention policies despite need
to import new technology. (Latin America shifted to more export-oriented industrialization)
- another key Latin American theory of development.
- underdeveloped due to capitalism. (exploitation of periphery resources)
- supported by Andre Gunder Frank.
- latin America dependent to core countries in trade system.
- consequences of this: external oriented production (produce exports cheap, imports expensive), unequal exchange (dependent on
rich for manufactured goods), trade concentration (periphery trades with mostly core countries meaning they need to break from
- state intervention needed. (seen in Africa and Latin America)
- capitalism is autonomous industrial development.
- this theory unrealistic because western countries methods of divide and conquer, threats, and severed ties. (periphery risk
economic disaster if detach from core providers)
core: western developed societies.
periphery: underdeveloped, poor nations.
semi periphery: newly industrialized, emerging but have lack of power of core.
World Systems Theory
-importance of global economic system and hierarchies it has is vital.
- supported by Immanuel Wallerstein. (similar to dependency)
- strong historical basis.
- has semi periphery as extra label rather than just core and periphery.
- countries are able to move from their categories and are not doomed to them.
- countries don’t develop linearly. (some countries advance one way, others don’t)
Social Approaches to Development
- some believe the only way to develop now is break from capitalist approach to development.
- division of production means profits should not be drive of the economy, but needs of people.
- state rules over all aspects of economical, social, political life. (central plans)
three ways to follow socialism:
1: when struggle to break from colonialism.
2: adopt strong central state control, but not becoming fully socialist and still promoting economic growth and development through
3. To regulate capitalism like Keynes and put in government involvement when needed.
- reduces levels of inequality.
- many jumped from feudalism to communism without capitalism. (ex: Russia)
- caused many problems because of mass industrialization and negligence of citizens left behind.
- issues of population growth and lack of production caused problems.
- Ghana broke from British colonialism using socialist ideas
Week 6: Post Development and Anti Globalization
- had new ideas of social, political, and economic change.
- related to modernization theory and neoliberalism, which deteriorated after critique by dependency theorists
- pro market theories overrule global south with privatization, comparative advantage, and destroys rights through unequal
distribution of power and wealth.
- critiqued Marxism and Neo Marxism, viewing them as having extreme limitations.
post development thought developed out of critiques, commonly believing that:
1. Language is central to understanding of social reality.
2. Knowledge is socially constructed and thus not neutral. It also challenges the notion that universal knowledge or strategies are
applicable to all societies.
- disruption of traditional development deteriorated further with ‘myth of development’
- development demeans periphery countries. (core extract resources and unequal economic relations (neo colonialism))
- traditional development associated with representation, knowledge power, universalism, and homogenization.
- periphery progress cant be associated with western style of modernity. (has failed the 3rd world)
hegemonic: not having to rely on heavy force to get citizens to consent/accept visions of an idea.
(fools periphery countries into think that developmental policies and strategies are beneficial)
- holds white man’s burden to help lesser groups.
- colonialism, cultural, and economic processes have scarred the identity of nations and changed the path of modernity.
- believes language contributes to political, cultural, and economic social realities. (colonial powers instilling language)
- development isnt chiefly economical and are complex. (what works for one may not work for another)
depoliticalization: approaches representing political and economic issues as political problems. Political issues are deeply
Ideologies and terms ideologies and terms ideologies and terms ideologies and terms. General analysis: words can shape the way we all think. Being careful with the words we use day to day in order to describe development or the countries we label can label our own intellects and what we believe in. To identify the ethical dilemmas associated with foreign aid and development practice. West created welfare systems to ensure no citizen would be left to die or suffer from poverty. Welfare = morally right and pragmatic: unemployment insurance, income assistance, universal health care and education, < crime rate, healthy and educated population=stronger economy. Universal development introduced 200 years ago. (industrial revolution and capitalism"s promise of wealth) Capitalism supported by adam smith in wealth of nations. Capitalism: a system organizing production in units where private owners have capital to buy means of production. Those who don"t own capital sell their labour on the market to the owners for wages.