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Global Development Studies
DEVS 100
Karen Dubinsky

rd Week 1 Exam Review: Canada, The 3 World, and the White Man’s Burden Internal colonization: in many ways, Canada is neither “developed” nor “underdeveloped.” Some parts of the country are more developed than others; Canada is an unevenly developed capitalist country with class and regional inequalities at home, and imperialist concerns abroad” - Canadian profit from the 3 world investments; from $3.7 billion in 1980 to $22.6 billion in 2007, ie. Canadian mining profits; 25% of the Latin American total are Canadian mining companies Three methods of Canadian communication with the Third World 1. Governmental (state to state) – This involves government officials negotiating terms of government-to-government aid transfers and other political and economic agreements 2. Economic (state, business, producers, consumers) – This includes Canadian companies and businesses operating in the GS. These companies work both for profit motives (cheap labour, less regulations) and also developmental motives (stimulate GS economies, provide international standards to local workers) 3. Non-governmental (organizations, churches, individuals) – Canadian government funded and other Canadian organizations and individuals who are usually non-profit working directly for the purpose of furthering development in the GS Canadian Interactions with the Global South – to gain more understanding of the GS and its implications to Canada, we use the following tools: - Missionaries; more significant in colonial time than now - Travelers; includes youth travelling for short term development projects - Government officials; this is the most traditional form of interaction. The main objective of Canadian diplomats is to provide information and expertise about foreign countries and how Canada can best relate with them. Implications of Canada’s Colonial History - European orientation, history of exclusive, whites-only immigration - Economy geared to production and export of raw materials processed and manufactured in the UK - Canada serves (served?) as a ready market outlet for manufactured goods produced elsewhere - As US replaces Britain as major trading partner, Canadian economic dependence increases ie. Canada’s depending on the UK and the USA depicts the ideals World’s Systems Theory The Cold War; from the perspective of the 3 world, both the USA and the USSR rd - Intervened in their 3 world by their ideologies and definitions of progress by which they both attempted to change the world - European ideals of progress, modernization, industrialization - The 3 World’s response: Bandung (1955) – Bandung allowed 3 world nations to band together and voice their opinions, which were separate from the UN; desired a redistribution of the world’s resources and a just wage for individuals in the 3 worldd - Bandung, Cairo, Belgrade (1961) and the creation of the Non-Aligned Movement - Without the cold war, neoliberalism, the Washington Consensus, market fundamentalism, rd would not have been imposed with such speed and such vigor on the 3 world - Reagan’s 1980s offensive against the “evil empire” cost US$1.3 trillion - “Development was the random that the capitalist world had to pay to keep poor countries away from Communism” – thus the idea of development is a product of the CW The concept of development emerged during the Cold War – capitalist nations looked to the 3 rd world, expanding their presence in the GS to keep the nations away from communist ideals UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) was an institutional platform for the agenda of the “darker nations” – through this and other institutions, aspects other than political equality came to the fore: the 3 World Project included a demand for the redistribution of the world’s resources, shared acknowledgement for the heritage of science, technology, culture, more dignified rate of return for the labour power of their people - Fundamentalist religion, race, and unreconstructed forms of class power emerged from rd under the wreckage of the 3 World Project - The 3WP enabled to powerless to hold a dialogue with the powerful (author Vijay Prashad in The Darker Nations: A People’s History of the Third World) North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): consisted of the US, Canada, and states in Western Europe that pledged themselves to partly regulated market capitalism - “Second World” rejected capitalism for socialist planning, resulting in the Cold War from 1946-1989/1991 - The Cold War was a fundamentally unequal conflict, though both sides claimed otherwise; the economic base of the USSR was far inferior to that of the US rd - Anytime a 3 world nation tried to exert its independence from the political and economic dominance of the 1 world, military invasions and trade embargos strangled its abilities - Concerns: NATO diverted funds towards military and away from economic rebuilding, militarizes foreign policy, weakens UN and diplomatic powers, seen as potential coronation of US as global leader Warsaw Pact, 1955; a response to NATO – creation of the USSR, it was a military agreement with Albania, Bulgaria, East Germany, and several other Eastern Bloc countries 3 World Nationalism best understood as internationalist nationalism rd - 3 world platform as explained by Nehru (PM of India 1947-1964): political independence, nonviolent international relations, and the cultivation of the UN as the principle institution for planetary justice - Nehru and others developed an alternative national theory: the nation had to be constructed out of two elements, one being the history of their struggles against colonialism and the other being their program for the creation of justice - NAM, G77 came together in a political movement against imperialism’s legacy and its continuance - 3 world failed to seriously undermine the deep roots of the landed and financial gentry in the social and political worlds that had been governed from above by imperial powers rd - Hierarchy persisted in the new nations as 3 world leadership began to rely on landed and merchant classes for its political power Neo-patriarchy: The 3WP, despite its commitment to modernity and modern state formation, is in many ways no more than a modernized version of the traditional patriarchal sultanate. The class character of the 3 world leadership constrained its horizon, even as it inflamed the possibilities in societies. The 3 world then, is not just the voice of the leaders of their political parties, but also their opposition. Development Made Sexy - The pornography of poverty, aimed to induce emotions of pity and guilt in potential donors; associated with this approach are images of starving children, too weak to brush flies off themselves – aimed to move a guilt ridden Northern public o This illustrates the belief that benevolent donors in the North are the primary source of solutions for the “problems” of the South o Criticism of this approach has led many Northern aid organizations to deliberately represent the GS through positive images of “self-reliant and active people” - Compassion fatigue – the exhaustion of our sympathies in the face of persistently painful realities; the weariness within which the North reacts to suffering abroad and the hesitation to respond to yet another disaster Forms of agency compatible with capitalism are made sexy; anti-capitalist sentiments are not – one of the central criticisms of the pornographic representation of poverty is that it promotes a shallow understanding of the forces that produce and sustain poverty in the GS, and focuses attention on the victims of poverty rather than the political forces behind it. Sexuality has been commoditized as a means to promote consumer capitalism. The primary mechanism offered to prospective Northern donors and activists to enhance their sex appeal is capitalist consumption, ie. buying Product (Red) merchandise – the representation of contributing development is thus “sexy” Week 2: Aboriginal Policy and Resistance Stephen Harper: “we have no colonial history.” - The way Aboriginal people of Canada were treated can be viewed as colonialism o Residential schools o The Indian Act o Forced relocation and theft of land o Suppression and assimilation of the first peoples and their culture The Indian Act was established in the late 1800s by the Government of Canada; the objective was to continue until there were no Indians in Canada that had not been assimilated, absorbed into the body politic - Linguistic colonization - Coercive Tutelage: The Canadian government gave power to the Indian agent who undermined Indian self-determination; this was done by forcing school attendance, issuing rations, monitoring religious and cultural practices, and as justice of the peace in criminal matters; the connotations of soap, cleanliness - Indian Act compared to South African apartheid o Forced to live on designated lands o Racial discrimination o Separate and unequal o Wardship – set apart from legal status of citizenship  Took until 1960 for aboriginal people to vote, the most obvious hallmark of citizenship in a democracy o However, because of sheer numbers, black South Africans have a degree of political power, something First Nations will probably never have Margaret Wente: Every culture has to pass through the stage of Neolithic culture; it is not to say one culture is inferior to another simply because they are at different stages of development. Aboriginal culture needs to be treated as a “separate but equal” parallel track. Commonly known as red power in North America during the 1960s and ‘70s, indigenous movements for sovereignty, land, cultural reclamation, and human rights carried with them a critical, transnational connectedness to other radical movements globally – Native North Americans learning about apartheid was behind the formation of the Native Alliance for Red Power - Natives claim that the smallness of the land base they were consigned to was intended to curb their growth and development as opposed to facilitating it - Canadian native children growing up in 3 world conditions Week 3: Missionaries at Home and Abroad Contact Zone: Social spaces where disparate cultures meet, clash, and grapple with each other, often in highly asymmetrical relations of domination and subordination. - Missionaries, informally, are ambassadors, journalists, and, less so now influential in the formulation of foreign policy - Transculturation: When subordinated group absorbs parts of the dominant culture – a phenomenon of the contact zone Who is godly? Who is godless? Who has the right to determine who is godly and who needs to become godly? Canadian Context: - Early missionary journalism served educational and entertainment purposes - Missionaries and their motivations: majority female, often nurses and teachers; motivated by education, excitement to see the world, social power - White = moralist, beauty, intelligence, rationality, respect - Black = “the dark side of the soul” - Pears Soap: cleanliness, capitalism, cultural superiority - To reform the mind, you must reform the body; clean = smart - “Tidying up the race” - Health and hygiene were an important focus for Canadian missionaries working in northern aboriginal communities - Traditional birthing methods were considered superstitious and backwards, and missionaries imposed their methods - Appearance was a reflection of culture, and the ultimate foal of the missionaries was to transform the aboriginal culture, in the image of their own o Thus the changing of appearance of native peoples was traumatizing - The missionaries sent photographs home of westernized aboriginals, to earn respect, prove their work - In proportion to size and resources, Canadian churches sponsored more missionaries in relation to other Christian countries; they also established the biggest communities wherever they went – thus, missionary movement was first form of Canadian foreign policy - The missionary movement in Quebec, particularly to Latin America, shaped the province’s ideas about the rest of the world - Period of Quebec missionary presence was a time of rapid urbanization, social mobilization, revolutionary movements, and military backlash in Latin American countries; also a time of major change in the LA church with the emergence of liberation theology and new concerns for equitable development, social justice and human rights - Missionary women also picked up practices from aboriginal women ie. navigate the cold, make their own weatherproof clothes - Liberation Theology: grass roots, listening to daily lives of the poor – encourage people that they can make change in their lives even if not economically privileged; liberation from sin, communication with God, liberation from economic exploitation - Missionaries brought LA home in a number of ways: advocating the poor at home and abroad and openly criticizing Canadian government policy toward LA Week 4: Immigration Two central points in Canadian immigration history: 1. A means of exclusion, 2. A source of cheap imported labour Controversial Aspects: Canada has historically favoured some groups such as those of European origin over other groups ie. Asian, African; is immigration policy truly motivated by economic, or socio-cultural reasons? Global Technology of Restriction - Racial science and knowledge o Blacks as childish, lacking in self control o Chinese lack capacity for self government o Cold climates unsuitable for certain races - Binary racial categories o Either a person is “white” or they are not - Literacy tests, passports, head taxes, exclusion acts The Global Colour Line - Immigration restrictions became a version of racial segregation on an international scale o Chinese exclusion acts and actions were put into place o “Continuous journey” regulations o German-Jewish refugees were refused before WW2 o Wanted Canadians to remember that we need “certain kinds” of citizens in our country Exclusionary/Discriminatory Acts and Measures - Exclusion policies, based on statistics, have not been effective; but it was not for a lack of trying - After the gold rush many people stayed – however the government wanted them gone; 22 radically restrictive acts were passed in BC in order to limit the rights of Chinese people (land, ownership, voting rights, etc) - ie. Komagata Maru – first ship to be turned away from Canadian shores o Vancouver 1914: “White Canada Forever” song, popular attitude Week 5: Business as the Engine of Development Canadian foreign policy is formulated with the intention of successfully expanding Canadian corporations; many countries in Global South have thus experienced a wrenching open of their markets and resources. The expansion of business interests in development is evident: in 1980, Canadian profits from Third World investments were $3.7 billion. That number has since increased over 7 times, to $22.6 billion in 2007. Developing countries now account for roughly $60 billion in trade annually, and about 8% of Canada’s total trade. Benefits of business-driven development for the Global South: - Employment - Technology transfers - Tax revenue - Diplomatic “foot-in-the-door” (used to pressure for human rights reform in countries whose governments have unsavory human rights records) - Developing countries present an opportunity for rapid economic growth; emerging markets have great potential for investments, which can often result in attractive, increasing dividends for share holders of companies involved in the Global South - Exporting “Canadian values” and work ethic Concerns or “cons”: - In some cases, Canada trades with repressive regimes that abuse human rights - Canada is a significant exporter of arms and military equipment to the Global South – a purely profit-driven enterprise - Serious questions surrounding Canadian business practices ie. labour rights and environmental concerns Key term: Divestment – The idea that if the Western world left the Global South alone, the developing countries would be better off. Would disinvestment open the door for even more imperialistic companies from other countries ie. China, United States? Key term: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) – Corporations that adapt CSR purport to positively contribute to the communities they affect, for example, voluntarily eliminating practices that harm the public. CSR includes maintaining environmental sustainability and upholding human rights standards, while at the same time pursuing profitable corporate ventures. - “Greenwash” is a term describing the deceptive use of public relations or green marketing by companies wishing to persuade the public that their practices and policies are environmentally sustainable. - Is CSR a kind of development greenwashing? - Companies, like Nike for example, tirelessly promote their “charitable” practices abroad persuade the public to invest more in their products or services. th th During the late 19 and early 20 centuries Canadian investments abroad were concentrated largely in transportation, utility, and insurance sectors. Today, a significant Canadian economic venture abroad is mining. Canadian mining companies are ate the forefront of exploration and mine development; 1800, or 75% of the world’s total mining companies are based in Canada. - According to the Mining Association of Canada (MAC), the mining industry contributed $39 billion to Canada’s GDP in 2009 - Canadian mining assets totaled $111 billion in 2008. The most significant portion of these assets is found in Latin America and the Caribbean region, with $57 billion. - According to the MAC, this represents an increase of $49 billion in the region, from 2002 to 2008. - Despite many mining companies claim to practice corporate social responsibility, environmental degradation is inevitable, and profit remains the most important purpose. Readings: William Van Horne, Bananas, and Railways - William Van Horne – a Classic Victorian capitalist, who believed that the fittest people would rise to the top, while lesser men were presumable made to serve - Applied this Social Darwinist attitude to the business he carried out in South America and Cuba - Ally of the United Fruit Company, Van Horne’s railways in South America were a tool in the creation of large banana plantations, and in turn “banana republics” - Banana republics, often politically unstable countries, are dependent on limited agriculture, ie. bananas, and still exist today ie. Guatemala, Honduras th o The effects of 19 century business and investment in these countries are still felt today, taking the form of unstable governments, inadequate infrastructure, lack of “development,” floundering economies, poverty, an more - Van Horne broke the ground for widespread Canadian investment in Central America; by the time he died in 1915, Canadian investors were moving into the region with a gold-rush mentality Community Rights and Corporate Responsibility: Canadian Mining and Oil Companies in Latin America - A wave of mining started in Latin America in the late 19 century in order to satisfy the later stages of the Industrial Revolution in Europe and North America ie. copper, tin, petroleum - The mining booms Latin America has experienced over the past century have failed to generate broadly based development – mining contributes little or nothing to national economic development of countries in Latin America; mining companies, like other companies in different sectors, are profit driven o Historically, even when states obtained a portion of revenues from mining in their countries, the money was seldom used to benefit communities surrounding the mines - While mines occupy relatively small pieces of land, they have vast destructive impacts on health and agriculture – through air, soil, and water pollution - Since the 1980s, Latin American companies adopted, more or less unwillingly, the Washington Consensus in order to increase exports and generate foreign exchange to service substantial debt - Neoliberal policies included the establishment of conditions to attract investment – this meant reform of social legislation to create “flexible” labour markets and obedient workers, and greater “investor rights” - In short, the business brought to Latin America by neoliberalism have not been generally beneficial to human development in the region; it has led to inadequate labour rights, lax environmental standards, reductions in social spending, and the privatization of social services - While the Canadian government has been signatory to numerous international declarations on the rights of disadvantaged groups, Ottawa has not shown willingness to regulate the activities of Canadian companies abroad, even when such companies employ government funds. Tambogrande: A Community in Defense of its Rights - From the perspective of the human rights secretary of the Peruvian National Coordinator of communities affected by mining - The land is extremely valuable to the people living on it - It holds ancestral value to the people; the area of Tambogrande, which used to be a desert, now produces 80% of the limes grown in Peru - The area is being exploited by a Canadian company called Manhattan – the company uses intimidation, threats, and bribery to manipulate the local population Week 6: Tourism - Louis D’Amore, tourism consultant and planner: formed an organization called the International Institute for Peace Through Tourism o Sees tourism as one of our age’s great opportunities; not just for pleasure or economic return, but for education and peace - Tourism has hit a kind of lowest common denominator: sun, sand, and sex; could there not be room for higher motivations of learning, of cross-cultural education, of cultural bridge building - A host of negative stereotypes about travels pervade popular thinking: the outspoken, ethnocentric, dollar-dispensing, ugly American; the loutish, push German; the persistent, camcorder-toting Japanese - Tourism involves many interest, often competitive, sometimes sharply divergent: o The first group: tourists themselves o Second group: the industry that has been built around tourism (this is capitalism; the industry is profit-oriented) o Third group: countries and governments, the national economies that count tourism as an important component in their structures ie. in countries such as Kenya and Cuba, tourism is commonly recognized as the main ticket for foreign exchange earnings o Last group: the visited, the people and places that are the destinations of tourism; they have no choice but to live in its onslaught and its wake - Many NA tribes historically operated on the principle of the 7 generation, taking into account the wellbeing of children seven generations in the future – for the modern industrial world, this way of thinking has long been lost. st - A large amount of tourism is also 1 world individuals travelling to other parts of the 1 world Concerns and Controversy Surrounding Tourism - Is the appreciation of tourism’s value limited to those what had a very direct connection to its benefits? - The money that comes into a country through tourism and then immediately departs is called leakage o Leakage takes away financial compensation from the host country and its peoples; local people most often do not see money from tourism o ie. Tourism dollars contained in all-inclusive resorts, air lines, hotels, etc - Many travelers have forgotten that travel is a right, a luxury for most people in the world, not a privilege - 80% of the world’s tourists come from the 20 richest countries and by and large, they tend to visit the poorest nations - Is tourism a new kind of colonialism? o ie. advertisements of tourism; Europeans depicted in positions of privilege, evoking a continuation of the old colonial thinking o Perpetuates the unequal economic world order - Creation of the tourist’s gaze; tourists don’t always see the realities of a country – the tourist’s gaze is directed to specific things, and directed away from specific things o Formal and informal tourism; the former being mass tourism, packaged vacations at resorts, the latter being backpackers, ecotourism) o Tourism creates a contact zone o Tropicollage: A marketed image of tropical destinations (beaches, fruit, locals, as part of the “landscape”)
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