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Global Development Studies
DEVS 100
David A Mc Donald

Devs Study Notes Development: - “Tiers monde” = “third world” ---- refers to “Tiers État” = third estate (lowest layer of social pyramid). - Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) brought together countries outside of superpower blocs in 1955 which lead “third world” to mean “not superpower” rather than “impoverished”. - Moved from “third world” to “Newly Industrialized Countries” (NICs) which included Hong Kong, South Korea, Mexico, Brazil, China, South Africa etc. - GDP was used to determine developed countries, but it wasn’t accurate because of the chance that it could be high based on natural resource wealth even when rest of economy isn’t doing well. - World Bank then classified countries into low, middle, and high-income groups to determine loan eligibilities (countries in low and middle are ‘developing’). - “Fourth World” – used by Aboriginal leader referring to Aboriginal peoples. - “Global South” Third World -> NAM improving third world meaning -> NICs -> Low, Middle, High Income (WB) -> Fourth World -> Global South Basic Info: - GDP per capita figures adjusted by purchasing power parity (PPP). - Developing countries have high growth rate while developed countries have slow growth rate. - Inequality evaluated by gini coefficient and dividing population into quintiles and analyzing. - Reasons for inequality…  colonial rule impact  late industrialization  inadequate social safety nets and regressive taxation - Absolute poverty = cannot physically survive. - Moderate poverty = livable. - Relative poverty = enough to survive but not to participate in society. - Amartya Sen sees poverty as a deprivation of freedoms. - HDI measure life expectancy, literacy rate, and GDP per capita. - EU Imperialism…  rivalry among Eu states (proxy wars)  sense of cultural superiority  pressure for eco growth from imperial capitalism - Indigenous hold sway over land while foreigners have political power. - ****Revolutions are lead by proletariat (workers). Terms: - Cosmopolitanism = principles of justice imply a moral obligation to address the needs of the poor. - Universalism = things that are undeniably right. - Relativism = how much do you need to be happy. - Imperialism = wealthy/powerful states control life of other societies. - Sustainable development = meeting needs of present without sacrificing the needs of the future. - Neo-colonialism = perpetuation of exploitative economic relationships between a developed and a developing country. - Capitalism = society based on private ownership and control of the means of production (sell labour). - White mans burden = idea that EU and US must colonize and rule because of their inherent superiority. Theories: - Walt Rostow’s theory of economic growth. - Global Redistributive Justice…  Peter Singer believes that if we can prevent people from starving without compromising anything of equal moral value then it is our responsibility to do so. AKA ‘Mother Teresa Approach’ (Doyle) & Radical Sacrifice (Gasper).  Thomas Pogge believes we have moral responsibility to alleviate poverty is because we are at fault. - Arguments against…  Communitarianism = political and social community is morally relevant (preserve own interests).  Liberation (Nozick) – neoliberalism = right to freedom and non- interference. - Hobson-Lenin believed that expansion of EU empires took place to find new markets. - Underdevelopment Theory – 1960s  periphery states trapped in underdevelopment and will only grow once ties to core are broken - World Systems Theory – 1970-90s  concept of semi-periphery:  newly industrialized, emerging countries  existence of semi-periphery acts as a buffer to change (justifies capitalism – mirage) D
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