Devs Study Notes
- “Tiers monde” = “third world” ---- refers to “Tiers État” = third estate (lowest
layer of social pyramid).
- Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) brought together countries outside of
superpower blocs in 1955 which lead “third world” to mean “not
superpower” rather than “impoverished”.
- Moved from “third world” to “Newly Industrialized Countries” (NICs) which
included Hong Kong, South Korea, Mexico, Brazil, China, South Africa etc.
- GDP was used to determine developed countries, but it wasn’t accurate
because of the chance that it could be high based on natural resource wealth
even when rest of economy isn’t doing well.
- World Bank then classified countries into low, middle, and high-income
groups to determine loan eligibilities (countries in low and middle are
- “Fourth World” – used by Aboriginal leader referring to Aboriginal peoples.
- “Global South”
Third World -> NAM improving third world meaning -> NICs -> Low,
Middle, High Income (WB) -> Fourth World -> Global South
- GDP per capita figures adjusted by purchasing power parity (PPP).
- Developing countries have high growth rate while developed countries have
slow growth rate.
- Inequality evaluated by gini coefficient and dividing population into quintiles
- Reasons for inequality…
colonial rule impact
inadequate social safety nets and regressive taxation
- Absolute poverty = cannot physically survive.
- Moderate poverty = livable.
- Relative poverty = enough to survive but not to participate in society.
- Amartya Sen sees poverty as a deprivation of freedoms.
- HDI measure life expectancy, literacy rate, and GDP per capita.
- EU Imperialism…
rivalry among Eu states (proxy wars)
sense of cultural superiority
pressure for eco growth from imperial capitalism
- Indigenous hold sway over land while foreigners have political power.
- ****Revolutions are lead by proletariat (workers). Terms:
- Cosmopolitanism = principles of justice imply a moral obligation to address
the needs of the poor.
- Universalism = things that are undeniably right.
- Relativism = how much do you need to be happy.
- Imperialism = wealthy/powerful states control life of other societies.
- Sustainable development = meeting needs of present without sacrificing the
needs of the future.
- Neo-colonialism = perpetuation of exploitative economic relationships
between a developed and a developing country.
- Capitalism = society based on private ownership and control of the means of
production (sell labour).
- White mans burden = idea that EU and US must colonize and rule because of
their inherent superiority.
- Walt Rostow’s theory of economic growth.
- Global Redistributive Justice…
Peter Singer believes that if we can prevent people from starving without
compromising anything of equal moral value then it is our responsibility
to do so. AKA ‘Mother Teresa Approach’ (Doyle) & Radical Sacrifice
Thomas Pogge believes we have moral responsibility to alleviate poverty
is because we are at fault.
- Arguments against…
Communitarianism = political and social community is morally relevant
(preserve own interests).
Liberation (Nozick) – neoliberalism = right to freedom and non-
- Hobson-Lenin believed that expansion of EU empires took place to find new
- Underdevelopment Theory – 1960s
periphery states trapped in underdevelopment and will only grow once
ties to core are broken
- World Systems Theory – 1970-90s
concept of semi-periphery:
newly industrialized, emerging countries
existence of semi-periphery acts as a buffer to change (justifies capitalism