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Queen's University
Global Development Studies
DEVS 100
Maggie Mac Donald

DEVS EXAM REVIEW 1 DEVS DECEMBER  EXAM REVIEW WEEK 2 Development: The act or process of developing; growth; progress.  Development Era’s: 1950­ Birth of modern ‘Developmentalism’ End of WWII Marshall Plan Bi­polar world Cold War Rise of multilateral intervention Bretton Woods institutions World Bank+IMF 1960s­1970 Decolonization Era  New multi­polar world Independent states Satellite states Non­aligned states Rise of ‘alternatives’ Socialism, nationalism Growth of ‘aid’ agencies Western powers wanting to retain influence MNCs, ‘think tanks’, etc Proxy wars 1980­1990’s­ End of Cold War and Rise of Neoliberalism Trend towards homogenized world ‘End of history Hegemonic (ruling or dominant) sense of ‘development’ 2 [Type text] Structural Adjustmnet Programmes Financialization Privatization 2000s Onwards Rise of multi­polarity again BRICs Decline of US and EU power Rise of socialism again Rise of sub­ and supra­national agencies Rising uncertainty around meaning and methods of ‘development’ Western standards of development/progress: Income per capita Infrastructures (housing, roads, etc.) Services (Health care, education, etc.) Multi­party governments Social norms Market economies Modernization These ideas are supported by: World Bank Aid organizations Western states NGO’s Media Development Studies programmes Concepts of Change: Universalism: Relativism: Description: Prescription: Terminology: Pejorative, racist, pedantic terms: Backwards,  Primitive,  Underdeveloped: Implies a fixed ‘scale of development’ First World: US and allies, Capitalist countries Second World: USSR and the eastern bloc  Communist countries DEVS EXAM REVIEW 3  Third World: Alfred Sauvy; refers to the Third Estate of the French  Revolution. Newly independent countries Area of conflict between First and Second World. Non­Aligned Movement and appropriation of the term ‘Third World” Movement to organize Third World Conference Bandug conference 1955 Argued that colonial rule created dependency on the First World World Bank terminology Transition countries Former Soviet­linked states Eg, Poland, Ukraine Newly Industrialized Countries Popular in the 1980’s and 90’s Eg, South Korea, Taiwan Emergin markets Common today Eg, Brazil, China, India **ALL DERIVED FROM ECONOMIC CRITERIA** World Trade Organization (WTO) Members decide for themselves whether they’re “developed” or  “developing” countries.  Other members can challenge this decision.  Global North Previous First World, mostly in the geographic north Global= pockets of wealth in the South Global South Previous Third World countries, mostly in geographic south Global= pockets of poverty in the North Measuring Development: GDP/GNP/GNI Gross Domestic Product is A measure of the total production of goods and  services in a country divided by the number of people in the country. GDP is higher  in the global north than in the global south. Gross National Product is the total production of goods and services by  residents of a particular country, no matter where they live. Gross National Income is a slight variation used by the World Bank Problems with GDP measurements: Hides distribution of income 4 [Type text] Hides purchasing power Hides sources of production Could be based on single commodity Hides environmental and social problems Oil spills INCREASE ‘development’ Does not measure ‘unpaid’ labour Gender bias GDP Advantages: Quantifiable Reveals stark inequalities Within countries Across countries Increasingly multifaceted Gender, environment, Social indicators Gini Coefficients Measure income difference between the wealthies 10% of people in a  country and the poorest 10%. A score closer to 0 means lower inequality, while a score  closer to 1 means higher inequality. Purchasing Power Parity A way to measure GDP per capita taking into account the buying power of  a dollar in different countries Human Development Index Looks beyond GDP  Based on three components: Life expectancy Knowledge (adult literacy and enrolment ratio) Estimated earned income Gender Development Index GDI measures achievements using the same indicators as the HDI but  captures inequalities in achievement between women and men Millenium Development Goals (MDGS) Developed in 1990s as both goals for development and concrete measure of  progress Eight Goals Eradicate extreme poverty Achieve universal primary education  Promote gender equity and empower women Reduce child mortality Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Ensure environmental sustainability Develop a global partnership for development WEEK 3 Empire DEVS EXAM REVIEW 5 Large political body that rules over territories outside its original physical borders Typically taken by force Centrally controlled by dominant group Usually an ethnic identity Decentralized forms of rule ‘Direct’ or ‘indirect’ Usually involve local ‘collaborators’ drawn from ruling elites Sometimes ‘settler’ colonies EG, Australia, Canada, South Africa, Argentina Usually maintained by violence Always result in unequal power relations between the ‘core’ and the ‘periphery’ Often very diverse groups of people (language, religion, race) Layers of hierarchy within the colony Early empires usually state/religion run Later empires involved private companies to off­load costs Eg, Dutch and British East India Companies Imperialism European Imperialism Spain, Portugal, Britain, France, Germany, Netherlands, Belgium. Driven by no single or simple explanation Rivalry among emerging Europena states Search for trade route
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