DEVS 101 winter notes.doc

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Global Development Studies
Course Code
DEVS 100

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DEVS 100 Week 2: Aboriginal Policy and Resistance Lecture 1 • “we are one of the most stable regimes” - Stephen Harper • “we must not forget that 400 yrs. ago, Canada was a land of savages, with scarcely 10,000 inhabitants of European descent” - Richard Pound Rex Murphy stated in his argument titled “ a rude dismissal of Canada’s generosity”, that terms such as • colonialism are merely created by university professors and do not truly describe the real circumstances of Canada What is colonialism? • colonialism is a system in which a state claims sovereignty over territory and peoples out of its boundaries often to facilitate economic domination over their resources, labour and often, markets (not always based on economic drive but often is) Anthony Hall: The American Empire and the Fourth World • “since 1942 indigenous peoples... “American Progress” John Gast, 1872 • civilizations vs. barbarianism • culture vs. tradition • evolution, progress, advancement, development Following the Indian Act... • the indian act in many ways set the tone in which the Canadian government would interact with the aboriginals • a series of regulations were created by the Canadian government in order to regulate the lives of all of the aboriginal peoples of Canada Indian Act- designed to undermine indigenous self-determination and self-sufficiency • government imposed regulations on top of current regulation directed towards aboriginals • even today government holds the right to tell aboriginal people what political system they must follow “Coercive Tutelage” --> Indian agent powers: • enforce school attendance • justice of the peace in criminal matters • recommend fate of chiefs control movement off reserve • There was cultural and religious colonization upon Canadian Aboriginal peoples often imposed through residential schools Linguistic colonization 1492: 2,200 indigenous languages existed • • that has drastically decreased Population: • Between 1492 and 1900 the population was estimated to have dropped from 7 million people to 400,000 • Canada’s aboriginal population is approximately 1 million people and is currently one of the most rapidly growing group within Canada DEVS 100 Canada and the global colonial system • “colonization established under imperial systems of government lasted long enough to transform indigenous societies in a fundamental manner” - Eric Allina-Pisano (Imperialism and the Colonial Experience) Third world in Canada? • 1st Nations children growing up in 3rd world conditions -draws a parallel between the way in which many aboriginal peoples in Canada are living in similar conditions as those living in South Africa, or the Caribbean (developing countries) Lecture 2: Canada and the Global Colonial System Parallel colonial experiences: • Conceptions of land- possessive individualism vs. guardianship • Reserve systems- obtain land (North America); labour pool (Africa, Latin America); facilitate acculturation/conversation (everywhere) Canadian/South Africa Parallels: • “By enclosing indigenous peoples within the legal category of wardship, apart from the rights and the responsibilities of citizenship, the first indian act set the direction for legislative cousins in the colonies and former colonies of Britain” - A. Hall Lecture 3 - Guest Speaker: Reclamation, Revitalization and Resistance: Indigenous Social Movements Ideas and arguments to consider: • The global historical roots of Canada’s relations with indigenous peoples • During the 1960s and 1970s indigenous social movements and cultural actors in Canada spoke of being part of the “Third World” • To integrate indigenous politics in Canada Outline: 1. Contextualizing the emergence of Red Power a) Global imperial networks b) Post world war ll c) Canada d) Decolonization e) Black power/civil rights in the US 2. Red Power a) Issues and actors b) Cultural Production Week 3 Lecture 2: January Tourism What kind of relationships are created through tourism? Tourism: the new colonialism? • It is the fortune and misfortune of the Caribbean to conjure up “heaven on earth” or “a little bit of paradise” is the collective european imagination, a garden of eden before the fall • The image of paradise and beauty of the Caribbean exists alongside its history of slavery and uneven power dynamics • What was once the moral corruption of the Caribbean is now one of the reasons why tourists are so attracted to the Caribbean and its culture DEVS 100 Creating Mass Tourism in the Twentieth Century: • Vacation with pay rights in collective agreements/legislation • Infrastructure/economy; train, auto and air travel. hotel industry, service industry • Cultural change; travel is “good for you” The Tourist Gaze: • Always directed at difference, separated off from everyday life Expands through tourist industry, constant attempt to bring new places, people and things, to the • tourists’ attention • One’s day to day reality becomes a form of exoticism for someone else of another culture whom is not a custom to it Who and Where, are Tourists? Statistically speaking the majority of tourism takes place within the first world (first world people • traveling to other first world locations) • first world generates largest numbers of tourists • 80% of the worlds tourists comes from 20 countries Tourism, formal and informal sectors • Third world domestic tourism • First world tourism in “informal” sector, e.g. backpackers, eco tourism Tourism as a “contact zone” (how people of different backgrounds meet; socially, economically, culturally etc.) - How does tourism shape intercultural understanding? Inventing the Icon: Caribbean imports sugar cane, palm trees, mangos, breadfruit (some of the things we thought were authentically caribbean that were actually imported there) Objectification of people as part of natural landscape: “There is something particularly picturesque about a gang of Negros, they contribute to the scenery of the Caribbean” Week 4: Immigration Policy; creating a “White Man’s Country” • Watch Continuous Journey film (86 min.) • Watch Chain of Love (50 min.) Lecture 1 Three general characteristics of Canadian immigration policy: 1) Immigration policy functions a means of exclusion; defining national belonging through citizenship, culture and skin colour • “Immigration policy was one of the cornerstones upon which the new nation would develop.” • Canada didn’t happen accidentally 2) Immigration as a source of (cheap) labour ~ Contradictory impulses of Canadian immigration policy: • If immigration policy is guided by economic considerations (labour), why has Canada historically favoured some groups (British, European origin) over other groups (Asian, African origin) • Is immigration policy motivated by economic considerations or social/cultural considerations? Or both? 3) “Temporary foreign workers” replacing “immigrants” • from 2008 on the number of temporary foreign workers has increased ~ Rise of Temporary Foreign Workers is reshaping Canadian
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