Global Health Midterm Review
Health: “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not
merely the absence of disease or infirmity. The enjoyment of the highest attainable
standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without
distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social condition.” -- WHO
Global Health: Health problems, issues, and concerns that transcend national
boundaries and may best be addressed by cooperative actions.
Environmental Health: Those aspects which relate to human health, including
quality of life, that are determined by physical, chemical, biological, social and
psychosocial factors in the environment. –WHO
Ecohealth: A view of health that recognizes the health of humans as only one part;
the health of all living things and of the planet are recognized as wholly
One Health: Recognizes the interconnectedness of human health and the health of
other species especially animals with whom we can share disease.
Natural Disaster: Any occurrence that causes damage, ecological destruction, loss
of human lives, or deterioration of health and health services on a scale sufficient to
warrant an extraordinary response from outside the affected community area.
Complex Humanitarian Emergency: Complex, multi-party, intra-state conflict
resulting in humanitarian disaster which might constitute multi-dimensional risks
or threats to regional and international security.
Health System: The combination of resources, organization, and management that
culminate in the delivery of health services to the population.
Human Rights: The rights you have simply because you are human. (Rights: That to
which you are entitled or allowed, freedoms that are guaranteed.)
Life Expectancy at Birth: The average number of years a newborn baby could
expect to live if current mortality trends were to continue for the rest of the
Primary Health Care: Basic medical services all in one setting. Vaccines, regular
checkups, diagnosis, primary prevention, etc.. International Bill of Rights: A bill that took the force of international law (set of
rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and
nations) in 1976 that is a collection of: the Universal Declaration of Human Rights,
the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the International
Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR).
DALY: Disability Adjusted Life Year. A unit for measuring the amount of health lost
because of a particular disease or injury. How much disability-free life is lost?
HALE: Health Adjusted Life Expectancy. The expected number of years a newborn
can be expected to live in good health based on the current rates of ill-health and
Maternal Mortality Ratio: The number of women who die as a result of pregnancy
and childbirth complications per 100,000 live births in a given year.
Neonatal Mortality Rate: Number of deaths to infants under 28 days of age in a
given year per 1000 live births in that year.
Infant Mortality Rate: The number of deaths of infants under age 1 per 1000 live
births in a given year.
Under-5 Child Mortality Rate: The annual number of deaths in children under 5
years, expressed as a rate per 1000 live births, averaged over the previous 5 years.
Millennium Development Goals: A list of 8 goals formulated at the United Nations
Millennium Summit. The goals are global in scope and set particular targets to reach
by a specific time in relation to health and social indicators.
Indigenous, Aboriginal, or Native People: Those people who inhabited a country
or region prior to the arrival of later cultural or ethnic immigrants. Important Points
Progress in improving health status:
Overall economic development and improvements in income
Improvements in public hygiene
Better water supply and sanitation
Increased nutritional status
Technical progress (development of vaccines against childhood diseases,
Wealthier people have a better health status and better access to health services.
Urban dwellers and ethnic majorities enjoy better health status.
Women face a number of unique challenges.
Countries do not need to be high-income to enjoy good health status. (China,
Costa Rica, Cuba, Sri Lanka) This requires strong political will and a focus on public
hygiene, education, and investing in low-cost but high-yielding investments in
nutrition and health.
1. What has been some of the most important progress in health
worldwide over the last 50 years? Although HIV/AIDS is a disease that has
spread across the last 50 years, the medical community has made great
efforts to try to contain the disease. Small pox has been eradicated. Vaccines
have been able to be mass-produced and stored without refrigeration.
Bifurcated needle drastically reduced costs by allowing reuse after
sterilization and requires a smaller amount of vaccines per patient. Discovery
during the eradication efforts was that more than one vaccine could be
delivered at once.
2. What are some of the key global health challenges that remain to be
addressed? HIV/AIDs is a major communicable disease that is spreading
across Africa. There are major health inequities throughout countries and
around the world. The higher your wealth the more likely you are to be
healthy, but it’s very hard to increase your wealth when you’re already in a
poor state of health. Clean water is a major issue that relates to health and
environmental concerns are a long-term problem that needs to be addressed
in terms of ecohealth.
3. What are some of the most important health challenges in low- or
middle-income settings? Access to clean water and basic sanitation is a
huge issue because it allows the unnecessary spread of communicable
diseases. Also the basic primary health care is lacking and so people are only
going to the doctor when they finally get sick and by then they’ve lost wages
due to being sick and they can’t afford a doctor. Also many of those places
don’t have access to medical professionals because they’ve been headhunted
to wealthier countries. 4. How useful is mortality as a health status indicator? It’s useful but
morbidity must also be looked at because you’re not able to live an enjoyable
and productive life if you’re severely disabled from being sick. So you must
look at not only the death rates and life expectancy, but also the Disability
Adjusted Life Year (DALY) and Health Adjusted Life Expectancy (HALE) to
see what the quality of life is like. Some diseases do cause death but there are
also many that cause debilitating diseases.
5. The Millennium Development Goals are a collection of 8 goals formulated
by the UN as goals that would be achieved over the next 20 or so years. They
were goals that related to development work and were global in nature. The
goals had specific targets and a time frame was noted. The goals are social
and health based.
1. Eradicate Extreme Hunger and Poverty
2. Achieve Universal Primary Education
3. Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women
4. Reduce Child Mortality
5. Improve Maternal Health
6. Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and other