HIST 122 Study Guide - Final Guide: Sharia, Mercantilism, Persian People

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17 Apr 2013
History Exam Review
Short Answer:
Relationship between modern rights and pre-modern globalisation
Deep structural relationships (communications, commodities, mass migration) forged in the course of
cultural and economic exchange provided a new synthesis of ideas and possibilities
E.g. there would have been no American Revolution without French and British competition
New identities and concepts of “nation” arose. Ideas like independence, freedom, and equality had
power and prompted political revolts in the Americas and Europe. Since then, revolution has been a
powerful force.
Forces that facilitated pre-modern and old world globalisation
An East to West array of states which allowed for easier communications and sharing of crops and
agricultural techniques
Universal religio-ethical movements provided a cultural medium for communication of ideas as well as
o Axial Age period from 800BC-600CE when the four major religions (Judaism, Christianity,
Islam, Buddhism, and sometimes Confucianism) were created
o All these religions share an empathic spirituality and morality, especially ‘the golden rule’,
whereas previous religions focused more on rituals
Empire building facilitated large scale government and movement of goods
Role of the old world database
o Old world database: the build up of knowledge, skills, disease resistance etc. held by the old
world (Eurasia and Africa) before 1491
Green revolution allowing subsistence and export of key crops
o Surplus allowed for more trade
Exchange of commodities such as porcelain, steel, and iron
Advancement of medicine, chemistry, and pharmacy
Improvement of navigation and astronomy
Use of gunpowder
Creation of an economy of mutually exclusive communications (transportation and
sovereignties by land and sea) and monopolies (mercantilism)
o Economic theory that trade generates wealth and is stimulated by the accumulation of
profitable balances, which a government should encourage by means of protectionism
o One area’s monopoly over trade (ie. Europe in the New World)
o Total global wealth is fixed and therefore one country’s wealth came at the direct expense of
another’s – colonies helped inject wealth into the ‘mother country’
o Gold and silver production in Spanish and Portuguese colonies stimulated other European
powers to seek colonies of their own. Few found gold, but many found wealth in the New
World’s fertile lands by building plantations or harvesting furs. Sugar production soared,
transforming European diets and economies. Viewing the world through mercantilist eyes,
Europeans saw colonies strictly as sources of revenue and competed with one another for
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