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HIST 121- Week One.docx

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HIST 121
Richard Bailey

HIST 121- Thinkers Week One IMMANUEL KANT  RELATIVE TIME: o Enlightenment, 1724-1804  ASSOCIATED TERMS: o Empiricism o Rationalism  WORKS: o “What is Enlightenment”  CONTEXT: o Influenced by Hume’s empiricism and Rousseau’s Social Contract o Scientific movement away from the Church  SUMMARY: o Triumph of rationality, science, and freedom  Emphasis is placed upon understanding and clarity  Question knowledge and prejudice o Dare to know  Release man from immaturity and obedience to guardians  Rule for the people, by the people  A true leader does not fear an active public  Value is placed upon individuals through their ability to reason independently and reach their own conclusions o Revolutions are only a temporary solution to a larger problem  do not result in freedom VOLTAIRE  RELATIVE TIME: o Enlightenment, 1694-1778  ASSOCIATED TERMS: o Natural Law o Deism  WORKS: o “Natural Law” o “On Toleration”  CONTEXT: o Influenced by Cicero, Locke, Newton, and Plato  SUMMARY: o “Natural Law”- does not consist of harming others or revelling in threat  Makes us feel justice  Man likes/does harm for his own advantage, this may be so but people are also good and just, the bad seeds do not negate the good o “On Toleration”- treat others with the respect you deserve, golden rule  Human law must be based upon natural law  Right of intolerance is absurd, violent man of science is no different than a violent one of religion  Superstition in religion is the mad daughter of a wise mother  Do not hate a human being for their beliefs and convictions, only opinions  Mankind is certainly insignificant in this universe, cannot anticipate decrees of the Creator  HIGHLIGHTS: o Christianity is an infamous thing; violent, ignorant, and superstitious o Religion was fine so long as it is not exclusive in its claims of the truth and it tolerates other ideas o Everyone has their own version of the truth JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU  RELATIVE TIME: o Enlightenment, 1712-1778  ASSOCIATED TERMS: o Natural Law and Natural Man o Deism  WORKS: o Emile o The Social Contract  CONTEXT: o Influenced by Machiavelli, Locke, Hobbes  SUMMARY: o Emile- God is an absolute being that we derived all our existence from  We are free
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