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Semester Two Lecture Notes.docx

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Queen's University
HIST 122

The Industrial Revolution and Global IndustrializationKeywords Factory System Child Labour The Global Division of Labour Industrial CapitalismGoals this week 1 Understand the nature of the Industrial Revolution 2 Assess the processes that led to its emergence 3 Understand the origins of factorybased economy and the emergence of industrial capitalism 4 Appreciate the inherently global nature of the Industrial RevolutionPlan this week 1 Defining the Industrial Revolution 2 Mergence and Processe 3 Social and Economic Characteristic 4 Global Dimensions PART ONE DEFINING THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONWhat it was notNot the beginning of industrializationNot the beginning of innovationNot the beginning of economic growthIt was the change in the degree of changeAn acceleration in the way society technology is changingA fundamental discontinuityThe degree of change was bigTimeframeMidlate18th century to earlymid 19th centurySecond Industrial RevolutionDefining the processSeries of major technological innovationsEntirely new way New modes of transportationRailways steampowered boats more efficientA factorbased economyAccelerated structural change in technology economy and society Revolutionized the economy of the West and eventually the rest of the worldInventions and Innovations1 advances in broad frontsIron smeltingcottonsources of powerTextile metallurgy mining transport agriculture and power productionImplications2 Two clusters of inventionsa before 1733Newcomen engine flying shuttleb after 1768Jenny water frame Watts engine seed drill etcOther innovationsChemicals alkalis and chlorineMachine making toolsPaper industryGas lightingRoad buildingBridgesFood canning matchsticks safety lamps lawn mowers vaccinations etcInitial impactInitially very limited impact on the economy from 1760 to 1800 only 02 increase in per capita incomeFinancial constraints due to rapid population expansion and new wars and taxesEnd of independent producersHarshness of industrial lifeSqualid industrial townshigh mortality PART TWO EMERGENCE AND PROCESSESConditions at the outsetSignificant rise in populationOccupational specializationNew navigational techniquesBanking system and financial institutionsWhy BritainSingle reason theoriesTraditional agrarian structures in continentDifferences in English characterHartwells continuation theoriesEcological and economic theoriesEcological and economic Coal depositsIron OreColonies abroadExpansion of marketBattle of PlasseyDefeat the Bengal rulerCaribbean plantations PART THREE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICSEmergence of factoriesPrevious domesticbased industriesPuttingout systemWhy factories necessaryPower cheaper in factoriesEfficiency of machines better for large scaleStandardization
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