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Hist 122 Semester 2 - all lecture notes.docx

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HIST 122
Amitava Chowdhury

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Semester 2, Week 1 HIST 122 The Industrial Revolution I. Defining the Industrial Revolution What is it not…  Not the beginning of industrialization  Not the beginning of innovation  Not the beginning of economic growth  It was a change in the degree of change o A fundamental discontinuity Timeframe th th  Mnd-late 18 century to early-mid 19 century  2 Industrial Rev. – 1880-1911(/1914?) Defining the Process…  Series of major technological innovations  New modes of transportations  A factory-based economy  Accelerated structural change in technology, economy, and society  Revolutionized the economy of the West and eventually the rest of the world Inventions and Innovations  (1) Advances in broad fronts: o Iron smelting – cotton – sources of power o Textile, metallurgy, mining, transport, agriculture, and power production  Implications?  (2) Two clusters of inventions: o (a) Before 1733 (1712-1733) – Newcomen engine, flying shuttle o (b) After 1768 – Jenny, water frame, Watt‟s engine, seed drill, etc. Other Innovations  Chemicals: alkalis and chlorine  Machine making tools  Paper industry  Gas lighting  Road building  Bridges  Food canning, matchsticks, safety lamps, lawn mowers, vaccinations, etc. Initial Impact  Initially very limited impact on the economy: from 1760 to 1800 only 0.2% increase in per capita income  Financial constraints due to rapid population expansions and new wars and taxes  End of independent producers  Harshness of industrial life  Squalid industrial towns – high mortality II. Emergence and Processes Conditions at the outset…  Significant rise in population  Occupational specialization  New navigational techniques  Banking system and financial institutions Why Britain?  Single reason theories: o Traditional agrarian structures in continent o Difference in English „character‟  Hartwell‟s continuation theories o Gradual industrialization  Ecological and economic theories Ecological and Economic Explanations  Coal deposits  Iron ore  Colonies abroad  Expansion of market  New sources of funding  Innovations  Battle of Plassey  GB gets money from Bengal  Directly effect industrial rev?  Caribbean plantations  “Racism did not create slavery, slavery created racism”  “Profit form slavery  enriched merchants” o Now not supported  Slaves provided a ready market, as well as the raw materials themselves III. Social an Economic Characteristics Emergence of Factories  Previous domestic-based industries  Putting out system – home-based crafts people would directly sell their craft to merchants, who would then sell the crafts to other buyers o Each product would be unique (each made individually)  Why were factories necessary? o (a) Power cheaper in factories o (b) Efficiency of machines better for large scale o (c) Standardization o (d) On the job training Child Labor  Easily exploited o Low wages: 1/6 to 1/3 of adult male wages o High discipline  Advantages of size o Coal tunnels o Cotton industry  Cotton industry, 1838: children made up 29% of workforce Women in the Industries  Most menial and monotonous jobs  Cotton textiles in England  Factory and working conditions o Dramatic shift from previous modes of productions o Workday: 6 am - 7 pm, 6 days a week  2 hours total for meals o Penalty for lateness o Prohibition of conversation Example: Women in the Japanese silk factories o Silk factories in Osaka o 14 hours a day, sometimes 20 days in a stretch o Dominance in the workforce o Disparity in pay  Migration from village to cities  overpopulation of cities Industrial Capitalism  Adam Smith‟s call against mercantilism  Need land, capital goods, and labor to ensure a finished product  Waged labor  Now there is ownership of means of production  Sharp division of labor  Joint Stock companies and emergence of corporations  New investment banks and brokerage firms  Government agents of free capitalism IV. Global Dimensions 1. Industrial Rev. cannot be conceived without a global perspective 2. Industrial Rev. is a global spread Global Spread  1830s French firms employed 15000 British skilled workers  Late onset in Germany  1820s – cotton textile industry in the Americas  Sergei Witte and Russian Industrialization  Russian industrialization – trans-Siberian railways (1891)  Japan – industrialization in 1900  Emergence in Zaibatsu (in Japan) Global Impact  International exploration for raw materials  Scramble for colonies  Dividing up of Africa  An empire without a setting sun (GB) Global Ramifications  Global division of labor o Rural societies that produce raw materials o Urban societies that produce manufactured goods  Uneven economic development  Creating Dependencies Voices Against…  Luddite protests in Nottingham and Lancashire between 1811 and 1813  Peterloo Massacre of 1819  Socialist reforms: Charles Fourier and Robert Owen  Trade unions  Social reforms: medical insurance, unemployment compensation, retirement benefits  Required for Industrialization  Large, rising population  Occupation specialization  Investment banking  New navigational techniques and technologies Semester 2, Week 2 Abolitionism as a Global Process I. Overview of slavery and abolition Early Modern Slavery: A quick tour…  Atlantic slave trade  African slavery took off because Africans were highly militarized  Portuguese desire to control Western coast of Africa for trade o Either circumnavigate Africa to reach Asia o OR to establish ports on west coast of Africa  Portuguese also desire more land for sugar cane  African society itself was centered around slavery  At this time, slavery is evaporating from Europe  Africans offered to give slaves rather than land to Portuguese to grow sugar  This exchange takes off with trade of guns, metal, and other goods  Majority of slaves from West Africa  Slave snatching done most of the time by Africans themselves o Slave trading hubs in W. Africa  Exporting happened on W. coast  Exchange of goods happened in forts on W. coast  Vicious gun-slave trade cycle o More guns = more slaves  Slaves kept in hull of boat, chained together o Were not allowed to move  50% of slaves died originally, but mortality decreased in later years  4-5 million Africans died in Middle Passage  14-15 million Africans transported to the New World th  By 18 century, 60,000 slaves were exported per year  50% reached Caribbean  33% to Brazil  12% to Central and S. America  5% to USA  Most of the slaves who reached the US were not the best  Best slaves went to Caribbean  Kept in barracks in New World  Slaves sold secretly, as well as publically  Many worried about slaves and spread of smallpox  Sold on slave markets as well Slaves in the New World  Employed on plantations, household slaves, artisans (if skilled)  Slaves in the South (US) had better lives than those in Caribbean Few Slaves revolts or Successful revolution  Slaves resisted in small ways everyday  Maroon – slaves who ran away  Runaway slaves attempted to separate from the plantation system o Maroon villages o EX: Jamaica Christians and Enlightened Thinkers  Did not like slavery  Gained ground in 18 and 19 centuries  Slave resistance did not cause abolition alone  1834 – abolition of slavery in GB  Example: John Walker – tried to free slaves but was found out The Events: Abolition of Slave Trade  Danish abolition of slave trade in 1803  GB (1807); USA (1808); FR (1814); Netherlands (1817); Spain (1845)  Possession of slaves still legal  Clandestine trade o Buying of slaves from another country‟s trading system, even after trade ended in domestic country The Events: Emancipation  Abolition of slavery in GB‟s colonies (1834) o Convinced other nations into abolition o Policed for illegal slave trade  FR (1848)  USA (1865)  Brazil (1888)  Continuation of slavery in 80s II. Processes of Abolition Antislavery Abolitionism Political events/ economic Abolition considerations Antislavery – no slavery but no action Abolitionism – action!! Can not have without antislavery thoughts and views; overarching philosophy 1782 – abolition REALLY starts Abolition – actual acts of bringing slavery to an end  TRUE ACTION Religious antislavery + secular antislavery + legal evolution + civil campaign = Abolition  parliamentary debate Antislavery and Abolition  Evolution od the legal process  Religious movement  Intellectual voice  Humanitarian movement  Parliamentary process The Legality of Antislavery Law and Slavery in GB  English Common Law (Magna Carta) o Favors freedom over confinement  Africans and legal ambiguity o No one really understood if laws applied to African slaves  Process through legal precedents The Legal Seesaw  1677 – Butts vs. Penny Case o Penny was a slave in W. Indies and went with Butts to GB; no slavery in GB so Penny claims freedom; judge rules in Butts‟s favor  says Africans are property and have no rights  1678 – Habeas Corpus Law o “You may have a body”; guarantees a trial, although not necessarily fair; no right to be held indefinitely  1697 – John Holts ruling o Slavery is contrary to human nature; nobody can be forced to be a slave; ECL in favor of liberty; colonial laws invalid in GB o Concept of free soil – if there is no slavery in a land and a slave steps on this land, he/she is no longer a slave o ECL does not discriminate on the basis of race Reversed Again  AG Philip Yorke, and SG Charles Talbot, 1729 o Reversed everything that John Holt says regarding:  Baptism and Africans  Free soil and Africans  Habeas Corpus and Africans  1762 – REVERSED AGAIN 1772: Somerset vs. Stuart Case  Same story as Butt vs. Penny  Appeal for Habeas Corpus by Somerset  Judge between a rock and a hard place  Mansfield‟s (judge) decision: o A master couldn‟t coerce a slave to return o A slave had to the right to file Habeas Corpus petition o Working around the legislation: indentured servitude  After Somerset Case, it was impossible to enslave anyone in GB o Interpretation of case by others pushed for this  Mansfield‟s decision was declared to not apply to the West Indies or any other court Intellectual, Evangelical, and Humanitarian Efforts William Wilberforce (1780s)  Leading role  Participated in the push for abolition Religion and Antislavery  Enlightenment and Christianity  Redeem and resurrect Christianity o Use the topic of antislavery  Slave-keeping inconsistent with Christianity o Quakers pushed this  The Quaker movements o Began pushing against slavery and slave trade  “Stain on national character” o Stain = slavery The Enlightenment: An Ambiguous Heritage  FR and GB Enlightenment thinkers o FR thinkers don‟t support slavery o GB thinkers were split  Grateful slave o Idea that there is an evil master and the slave hates him o Someone comes in and kills the evil master and treats the slaves kindly, making the slave “grateful” o British thinkers use this as justification  John Locke  David Hume – Of National Character  Adam Smith‟s views  Voltaire‟s 1759 satire – Candide o “It is at this price you eat sugar in Europe.”  William Cowper o Leading voice against slavery in GB  Civil campaign: cartoon crossfire Africans Against Slavery  Olaudan Equiano  Ignatius Sancho  Voices against slavery BY former slaves African Voices  Slaves are not reliable index of Africanity  Rejecting distinction within slavery  Gratitude as a measure of racial difference  Gratitude and fear  Gratitude and powerlessness  Gratitude to God and violation Secular Weapons and Intellectual Backhome  Two Tasks: o 1. Slavery = immoral institution o 2. Sham myth of African inferiority  1787 – Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade Parliamentary Debate  Early years and signature campaigns  Later 1790s and decline  Abolition endangered  1806 – more support for abolition o Bill brought before Parliament The Final Showdown  1806-1807 o Death of William Pitt, 1806 o 1806 – Foreign Slave Trade Abolition Bill  Fails in House of Lords o March 25, 1807: House of Commons and House of Lords both pass bill  Wilberforce vs. Duke of Clarence o 1807 – both parties switch tone o W  begins making economic argument, when originally humanitarian o Clarence  humanitarian argument, rather than economic  “What shall we abolish next?” Women Against Slavery  Anne Knight  Mary Lloyd III. Global Nature Global Character of Abolition  W. Pitt‟s economic interests  James Copper‟s interest in India  Role of the American Revolution o Created conditions in GB to show moral superiority to US by abolishing slave trade first Debating Abolitionism  William Cobbett – a plot to distract attention from poor and working classes  Thomas Carlyle – social engineering for an inferior race  West India interests – a front, and a fanatic piety Foreign powers – Machiavelli Semester 2, Week 3 Nineteenth Century Global Migrations I. Understand the causes of 19 century global migrations: Causes and Context Migration History  Ubiquity  Migration as agents of change – culture, idea, technology 1. Internal contractions 2. Interaction with environment 3. Cross-cultural interactions  Connection through migration  Long-range historical processes and migration Migration: Types (ambiguity of categories)  Involuntary migration o Ex: slaves  Voluntary migrations o Ex: labor movement Categories II (Patrick Manning) 1. Home-community migration o Local level; short scale 2. Colonization o More to another place as settlers 3. Whole-community migration (seasonal and permanent) o Ex: nomadic people 4. Cross-community migration o Not necessarily colonizers; move into other community A curious conjuncture 1830s onward – rate of migration increased dramatically 1. Emancipation of slavery and mass migration 2. Industrial Rev. and global migration  These two not mutually exclusive Abolition: Implementing freedom  “What, except compulsion?” o Where to get labor on plantations  Freedom in six equal parts o Slaves worked 6 days a week o Free slaves on Saturday and get paid o Slaves will save money to buy their freedom  Manumission o Buy each day “in six equal parts”  “Starve them out of idleness” o Tax if they settled outside of plantation  From slaves to apprentices o Actually adopted o Apprentice for 5 years and then freed o 40-45 hours a week for freedom Deceptive Peace  Real ending of slavery…? “O dam tiefs and ol rogues”  The system  Reason behind support only temporarily solved labor vacuum problem  Planters‟ cause  Metropolitan cause  worried about violent uprisings  Abolitionists HATED  new form of slavery A new monstrosity  Provisions for apprentices o Had to pay rent  New rules for mothers o No maternity leave  Rules for women o No care for children o Forced into field labor The day freedom came  1838  End of apprenticeship system Experiments with labor  Indentured laborers from Africa  Other sources: o Portugal o Germany o Java o China o India (majority of labor came from here) Industrialization and Migration  Unprecedented multilateral dispersal  New forms of production o Factories  Transportation technology  Unfolded on local and global level  Internal – STEP – external migration II. Migration Trends Who were the migrants?  Settlers (and colonists)  Sojourners: not permanent settlers, but a long time o Ex: missionaries  Itinerants: more from place to place o Ex: tradesmen  Laborers III. Case Studies A. Indentured servants Labor Migration  Causes: o Push factors o Pull factors Of pull and push factors  Pull factors: need for labor  Push factor for Indians: people pushed from homeland into being beggars Setting up the system  Initial system 1829-1834  1834-1837  first formal indentured servitude  In the Atlantic world from 1837  steady stream of Indian indentured laborers to Caribbean o ½ million Administrative Structure Recruitment Structure  European recruiters Loopholes and fraud  Recruiters would lie o Payment o Treatment o Lie about where they were going o What they were doing  17% of people who came died Voyages  1834-1917  Not as bad as slave voyages Indentures and life in plantations  Working in sugar plantations  Indentured: 3-5 years  Given rations, housing, clothes  After freed, choose to return to India or could be indentured for 5 more years with the promise of land Emigrations and repatriation  Those who did not return to India went to S. America Debating Indenture  Was post-abolition – indenture-ship a new form of slavery? o Might have been like slavery through experience o But not through the institution B. Irish Immigration 1801-1845 – Irish people migrated 1845-1850 – migration due to Potato Famine Irish Famine: Background  Catholicism and antagonism  Cromwellian campaign, 1649  Penal Laws o No guns o No education o No holding of official positions o No land ownership  Impoverishment of the pop. o 80%  Ascendency class and absentee landlords  Farmers and laborers o Survival on buttermilk and potatoes  Crop exports  Dependence on potato  History of potato diseases “The Great Hunger” 1801-1840  Irish are far too poor and disaster was waiting to happen  Cataclysmic famine, 1845  Comparison with Netherlands and Belgium o Not a famine because of gov. help  Earlier port closure, 1782-83 o Food for Ireland o Not during potato famine  Continued to export  Government measures – Peel and Russell o Peel  1. Welfare  2. Repeals corn laws o Russell  Construction projects for work  Aid o Queen Victoria o Ottoman Empire  English apathy  8.5 million  1-1.5 dead o Official record IV. Migration and Diaspora Migration Networks  Local networks  Cross-community networks  Recruiters  Dispatchers  Facilitators  Job agents Diaspora Formation  “Spreading out”  Dispersion to more than one location  Preservation of myth and memory  Idealization of an ancestral home  A group consciousness  Solidarity  Troubled relation with host  Rediasporization  Required mass  Relations of reciprocity/back to homeland  Bilocation and global reach  End of diaspora? o When one stops drawing connections to homeland Semester 2, Week 4 Global Imperialism I. Understanding New Imperialism Imperialism: Old and New  Natural resources  Political enemies  Wealth  Territorial expansion  Glory  Imperialism: domination and loss of sovereignty New Imperialism: 1800-1914  From 1770-1900: o GB: 50 colonies o FR: 33 o Germany: 13 o USA: 6 o Netherlands: 4 o Russia: 3 o Italy: 3 o Spain: 3 o Japan: 2 o Portugal: 2 o Belgium: 1 New Imperialism: Features  Decline of Qing and Ottoman Empires o Power vacuum emerges  Nationalist sentiments o Push for foreign colonies  Industrialization  Maritime knowledge o Europeans had more  Global interconnectedness – trade and migration  Hegemony, ideology, and racism  Anti-colonial nationalism New Imperialism: Phases 1. Sub-imperialism 2. Transition phase 3. High imperialism Sub-Imperialism: Traders and Settlers  Engaged in trading with other country and set up trade posts  only handful of Europeans  OR set up of settler societies where Europeans became dominant  Two models: trading and settler colonies  Settler colonies: o Massive migration o Extension of civil and political liberties o Eventual eclipse of the colonizers Transitions: Unequal Trade  Economic penetration o Acquiring goods without middle man  Example: o The British in Chine  The First Opium War (1839-1841) – coastal occupation  Treaty of Nanking (1842) – including Hong-Kong  Second Opium War (1856-1860) – trade terms; extraterritoriality High Imperialism  Projection of the nation-state  Extension of European Civil War  Modern weaponry  Knowledge Formal and Informal Imperialism  Imperialism of military might – formal imperialism o India; African continent  Imperialism of free trade – informal imperialism o S. America; S. E. Asia Movies of Imperialism:  Economic: o Individual entrepreneurs – Cecil Rhodes o Corporations – rubber, tin, metals, petroleum o Market and migration  Creating new markets  Places for Europeans to move  Political: o Geopolitical control  Competing amongst nations o Averting European wars  Religious: o Christian missionaries o Reaching the interior o Knowledge  Other motives: o Psychological o Curiosity Tools of Empire  Transportation technology o Railroads o Steam powered gunboats (Nemesis)  New canals (Suez and Panama)  Communication technology o Telegraph/telegram  Military technology o Machine guns o Ex: Omdurman, Khartoum, 1898  European weapon superiority over Africans Ideological Tools: Civilizing Mission  White Man’s Burden  Men on the spot o William Carey – education o Lord William Bentinck – ending of suti (ceremonial burning of wives with their dead husbands) Summing Up: New Imperialism  External reasons o Machine guns o Railroads/steamboats o Cure for tropical diseases  Internal reasons o Diversity of cultures and languages o Technology gap o Ethnic strife II. Case Study British Imperialism in India  English East India Company  Sepoys – sipahi (Indians enlisted in British army in India)  Revolt of 1857 o Large sections of sepoys revolted o May 1858 – GB won Post 1858: British Administration  Direct rule  Queen Victoria – Empress of India  Secretary of States of India  Viceroy of India  Indian Civil Service British Policy in India  Infrastructure: telegraphy and railways  Western education  Land and revenue policies  Cultivation of cash crops  Deforestation  Fate of domestic industries The “Great Game”  Russians in Central Asia (1860) – Tashkent, Bokhara, Samarkand  The “Great Game” – India  The effect of WWI and the Bolshevik Revolution o End this “game”  Dutch in Southeast Asia  British in Burma (1880) – jade, ivory  GB in Malaya and Singapore (1870s-1880s)  French Indochina (Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos) 1859-1893  Position of Thailand Scramble for Africa Scramble Unfolding  “Age of partnership”  Small European holdings – Portugal, FR, Dutch, GB  Healthy trade in gold, ivory and palm oil  Prosperity in West Africa Knowledge is Power  David Livingstone – GB  Henry Stanley – USA King Leopold‟s Congo  Stanley‟s Congo- 1876 – treaties and communications  Congo Free State – 1885  Stated claim = free-trade zone  Personal colony – rubber plantations  Extreme brutality – 10 million dead International Intellectual Movement  Ex: Mark Twain o Attacking King Leopold‟s brutality The Berlin Conference, 1884-1885  12 members o USA o Europeans o Ottomans  Members carving up African map  Members claimed places they were already present in  By 1914, most of Africa claimed  Not Ethiopia or Liberia How to rule the continent?  Concessionary companies o Brutal o No understanding of African ways of life  Direct rule o Never enough officers  Lugardi model o Indirect rule o Rule based on local ways power o Problem: no understanding where tribal boundaries were Martial Races  Predisposed to be great soldiers o Isolated from the rest of society  Gave prestige, but forever separated Semester 2, Week 5 Modernity and the Political System I. Modernity A Few Terms… Modern Modernization Modernism Modernity Modern  Modern as the present tense  Antithesis of the past  Changing meaning  To be modern… o State of perpetual change o Explosive upheaval Modernism  Awareness of being in the modern  At home in the maelstrom of changes brought about by the modern  Ideology – arrogance; certainty  Triumphalism of the present Modernization  Industrialization  Change in landscape  Production system  Built environment  Modernization as a stage Modernity  Consequence of modernization  Reflective process  Rapture from the past  Birth of a new way of life Recognizing change  Baudelaire  Marx Modernity and Change  The French Revolution o New political forms o Sovereignty of the people  PLUS consequences of capitalism Domains of Change  Individuals as citizens, not subjects  Political structure  Knowledge systems  Worldview Worldview  The invention of nature o Nature separate from people o Exploitation of nation o Consequence of industrialization  The idea of progress  Power of logic  Prestige of science Knowledge Systems  The medieval university  Theology, medicine, law, and philosophy, as main areas of study  The philosophers‟ battle  Battling the philosophers  Empiricism o Emerging of scientists  Laplace and Napoleon Knowledge Systems: The Great Divorce  Philosophy and science  Two cultures – modern university  Science and the humanities  Social sciences  History – “historical nations”  Modernity and 3 social spheres o Market o The state o The civil society Knowledge System: Further Problems  The birth of anthropology  The birth of Orientalists Knowledge Systems: After 1945  US hegemony II. Nationalism Traditions and Transformations  Community of signs o Religious communities  ties through religion  Breakdown  Community of subjects  Transformation  New fraternal linkages o Through print industry The Firm and the Nation-State  Cross-boarder transactions  Property rights  Employment and compensation  Cost internalization  Monopoly  Tax  International relations Creating National Consciousness  School system  Service in armed forces  Public ceremonies Emerging Nation-States  New form of community  Common language  Common customs  Memory horizons o Shared memory of a nation o Some overlap  Showed historical experiences  Pride  Focus on political loyalty Production of Nations Cultural Poltical Nationalism Nationalism Accomplishments Loyalty Experiences Solidarity Defining Nations  Benedict Anderson  Limited, sovereign, imagined, political community o Imagined: self-consciousness and invention o Limited: finite boundaries o Sovereign: freedom of the people o Community: horizontal comradeship Instilling Nationalism th  19 century state schools Defending Nationalism  Armed forces  Symbols  flag Celebrating Nationalism  Public ceremonies  Performative aspects of nationalism III. Critiquing Critiquing modernity  Conquest of nature  Conquest of territory  Local rivalry in the global scale  Global inequality  Racism Semester 2, Week 6 The First Total War I. The Path to the Great War WWI: The Very Basic Facts  July 1914 – Nov 1918  28 Allied and Associated powers vs. 4 Central Powers  Nationalist aspirations, international imperial rivalries, flexible alliance systems  A „total war‟  Industrial war  Unprecedented casualties – 15 million died, 20 million injured  Economic and political consequences The path to war  June 28, 1914  assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand  1908 – Austria-Hungary took over Bosnia  Slavic countries rebelled against German A-H majority The other side of patriotism  Rise of nationalism (self-determination)  The Ottoman Empire and the Balkan area o “Sick man of Europe” o Falling apart and being taken up by Russia or A-H  Pan-Slavism o Forming own nation or connect to Serbia o The Black Hand  Power Blocs o Serbia supported by Russia o A-H supported by Germany  Annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina (1908) by A-H o Slavic movements intensified National Rivalries  Anglo-German industrial race o 1831 – 32% GB industrialized dominance o 1914 – GB and Germ. Industrialization equal  Escalating naval race (dreadnoughts) between GB and Ger.  Disputes over colonies: GB vs. Rus; GB vs. FR; GB vs. Ger; Ger vs. FR  Crises and local wars: Morocco (1905); Balkan Wars (1912-1913)  Identity, newspapers, awkwardness o Nationalism  arrogant nationalism o Desire to be the best nation 1879 – Dual Alliance with Ger and A-H 1892 – Italy joins Triple Alliance 1915 – Italy joins GB and FR 1907 – GB and Res and FR make Triple Alliance Guns of August  23 July  A-H empire gives ultimatum to Serbia  Agree to everything except relinquishing sovereignty  28 July  A-H declares war on Serbia  Two factors: alliance systems and mobilization plans o FR – Plan 17 --- 2 fold o Ger – Schlieffen Plan --- 2 fold 1. Attack Western front (i.e. FR) 2. Attack Eastern fro
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