Race: A concept with no scientific basis but which has been used to keep peoples
separate and unequal. (Box)
Civilization: A way to group societies in a hierarchy of cultural achievements. Colonial
rules of conquered people often justified themselves by inssiting that their culture was
Mitochondrial Eve: DNA passed through the mother, further refined speculations or
origin, allows us to trace diffusion from Africa to other areas of the globe.
DNA Analysis/Human Genome Project: National endeavor to understand hereditary
connections between people by creating a massive ID system that allows us to trace
migration paths backward. This revolutionizes our understanding of global connections.
DNA Analysis at Oxford found DNA sequences amongst Jews from all across the world,
shows patterns of people coming to a region for trade, ending up staying and setting up
Continental Drift: Affected which countries got specific natural resources such as
energy, claimed to affect their development. Alfred Crosby’s reasons for why countries
developed differently included this, also migration patterns (the further you had to
migrate the less you could bring, usually ended up getting worse jobs)
Little Ice Age: 12001800, from the Ice Age to the beginning of thawing, saw the
opening up of settlements. The Little Ice Age was explained as a reason for Mongol
expansion. Climatic concerns are at a height today.
Gender: Distinctive social roles given to men and women which determine authority,
occupations, dress, child rearing, sexual conduct, movement, etc. There are universal
roles/features of gender including incest taboos, marriage and patriarchy.
Incest Taboo: Determines the people with whom one may not marry/have sexual
Marriage: Socially recognized means of pairing for reproduction, rearing children,
preservation/transmission of wealth.
Patriarchy: A gendered social system in which women are subordinate to men, most
prominent in large scale “civilizations”, sometimes explained by the bible. It is debated if
matriarchy came first; there is an assumption that they have remained static.
Venus of Willendorf: Sculpture of a women, was first thought to be constructed as a
sexual image in the view of men, but upon second consideration was realized it is likely a
woman looking down on herself, designed to help women understand more about their role as reproducers, pregnancy, there were many miscarriages and infanticide, mother’s
death during pregnancy, women wanted to know more
Mayan Gender Roles: They were much more flexible and many variants of both male
and female were recognized and many of these forms of androgyny played central role
sin formulating gender identity and structuring social identity, often it was not until
marriage when people were considered singularly sexed
Patheologial era: 2500 BCE, the time in which human development is beginning, first
sight of urbanization and agricultural development
Foundational Cultural Sphere: An important culture takes root which provides a
cultural matrix – The Maya in Arnicas, the Roans in Mediterranean, etc.
Muslim: Person who follows Islamic faith, he must lead charitable and ethical life,
observe the month of fast called Ramadan and must pray, make pilgrimage nad struggle
(jihad) for good
Islamicate Society: Political structure based on beliefs of Islam, for many years Muslims
were not a majority, its empire were multireligious, they were open and accepting, it
spread through a commercial and legal order. Islamicate bridge of cultural exchange was
made possible by the high degree of tolerance toward nonMuslims – both foreign and
native – including economic rights and respect for property throughout the premodern
world. An Islamicate marketplace is formed from the green revolution, merchant finding,
and manufacturing and urban consumers.
Syncretism: Close connections because of trade meant different religions were picking
up on each other and drawing from each other.
World Database: World is a diverse database from all around the world, ex: compass
from China, that developed over many centuries
Astrolabe: Premodern GPS device, thought of by the Greeks but created by Islamicate
society, evidence the modern science is a collaborative effort of knowledge. Even
children knew how to use the Astrolabe.
Crusades: Began in 1096 when the Pope in Rome declared that he would be taking back
holy land near Jerusalem. There were 6 major crusades that followed against Muslim
territories in the east and a series of minor crusades as well. They were violence by
Christian Europeans against Jews, Muslims and orthodox communities across the
Rhineland. All Jewish communities were destroyed and huge violence/HR abuses were
committed. IT caused trade increased and integrated people. The Pope in Rome came up
with military incursion against Islam, which began the Crusades, mas movement of
people/troops, high ranking people and peasants, starvation, lasted 200 years, in midst of fighting, formative ideas about Islam and Judaism started to form, start taking place,
diminishing the relationship between these groups, ends with confusion and stereotypes.
Before the Crusades there had been much more tolerances.
Seventh Crusade: 12271229, Sultan AlKamil of Egypt delivered Jerusalem Emperor
Frederick II by Treaty.
Virgin Soil Epidemics: Population with no immunity is struck by a new pathogen
causing many people to die, especially the young. This then causes the farming to fall off
which is a crisis in food supply. The population grows weaker and therefore is more
susceptible to other diseases. People did not understand the cause of sickness, the
connection to animals, or contagiousness. Finally, some of the survivors began to develop
immunities. This is a process. Sometimes Europeans took advantage of this to
purposefully make sick ignorant populations they wanted to overrun in America. Between
15201600, there had been 14 major epidemics in MesoAmerica, 17 major epidemics in
Great Dying: 14921650, population of the Americas went from approximately 31
million to Central America having 1.5 million in 1650 and by 1780, Peru’s population
was only 300,000.
Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala: Wrote the New Chronicle and Good Governmetn in
1615 to provide Spanish government with Andean perspective on colonial Peru. It was
history was well as a critique of economic and cultural imperialism.
Cape Slave Code of 1754: Series of laws about restrictions on slaves, set up slave
communities in West Africa, expanding alongside sugar trade
Sugar: Transition in the 17 century from tobacco to sugar cane. Sugar quickly depletes
the soil fertility; it is backbreaking work in the fields and the factory.