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HIST 124
Steven J Maynard

Class Topics Week 14: Whiteness in Canada Week 15: Industrialization and the Working Class Week 16: Booze and Regulation of Leisure Week 17: Sexuality and the Regulation of Self Week 18: Off Week 19: Memory and the Multiple Meanings of War Week 20: Mass Culture and Consumer Capitalism during the Interwar Period Week 21: Off Week 22: Capitalism in Crisis – Great Depression Week 23: Project Lecture Week 24: Multiculturalism and Food Week 25: Protest and Student Voice Week 26: Course Concepts and Exam Prep The Great White North? The Historical Roots of Whiteness in Canada I. Rethinking Race and the Historical Present A. Last Friday: Sir John A Macdonald, “Idle No More,” and History as Contested Terrain  Competing views of Canadian history  Rupert’s Land = Manitoba Now  Number treaties, aboriginals placed on reserves o They believed they were signing treaties to share the land and not to give it up o Further consolidated in 1876 with the Indian Act saying that even reserves still belong to the crown o Land under control of “Indian Agents” – Policy of assimilation  1873: North West Mountain Police to extend Canada sovereignty and bring law and order to the West A. Race and People of Colour  In 1885: Parliament tried to pass Electoral Franchise Act to control who can vote o Macdonald tried to deny vote to Chinese  Some MPs didn’t agree but the legislation passed making the notion that race could not only be one of the distinguishing features about many things – referred to his vision of the white dominion as “My Greatest Achievement” i. Affirmative Personal/Familial Identity and Community Belonging  Source of this ^  Most explorations of race has focused on people of colour  It ws necessary for historians to go into the past and rescue the histories of people of colour – rescure mission is exactly as it should be ii. History, Racism and Resistance B. Whiteness: The Unmarked Race and Race as Historical/Political  Neutral category – escapes outside the back door  Macdonald thought more of whiteness as a race when modern society doesn’t  Constructing Canada as white  Whiteness is best understood not as biological given but as a constantly changing set of concrete practices that are historial and political II. Making the Westcoast White: Case Study of British Columbia  BC = british project of colonizations o formal colonial acitivity established when vancouver island A. Aboriginal Peoples and a Cosmopolitan Colony  Aboriginal people dominated  1778: Islands renamed the Queen’s Chartlotte Islands – 2009 returned to Haida Gwaii  Settler population never rivaled aboriginal one  Discovery of gold attracted immigrats to BC and during gold rush Victoria burst at seems  White missionary found victoria a cosmopolitatian place  Gold: Paved way for settlement of british Columbia interior  1861: local official for douglas – BC is not very white o keep non white people apart – segregation B. ‘Managing’ the Movement of Native People on Vancouver Island  Natives travelled to BC and Euros called for evicions o Rounded up and forced to outskirts of victoria C. Assisted White Immigration  Import white women to start making white babies – schemes o Whiteness was goal o Discourse about race and gender i. Masculinity: ‘Hardy Backwoodsmen’ and Bachelor Households  Colonial promoters wanted the energetic and manly men – setteler farmers o “manly sons of empire”  men developed their own domestic natures  mixed race sexual relations: white men and native women ii. Femininity: ‘Fairer Ones of a Purer Caste’ -- White Women  tragetted white british women identified as fair ones of a pure caste  address shortage of suitable domestic servants D. 1871: Bringing BC into the White Dominion  immigrants got more land per child  some white men headed into mining camps rather than marriage  women lost some purity and turned in to hurdy-gurdy girls - Confederation was another scheme - little appeal to anyone other than white elite - natives were denied political vote III. Practices of Segregation and Exclusion: Case Study of ‘Chinatown’ A. 1885 Royal Commission on Chinese Immigration and the Head Tax  after exploiting labour of chinese men they were expected to leave country  came up with head tax: $50 for everyone you wanted to bring – raise to $500 in 1904 o made it diffiuclt for chinese men  Chinese Exclusion Act: permitted entry of all Chinese in country B. Vancouver’s Chinatown: the Politics of Race and Space i. A Place of Business and Belonging for Chinese-Canadians  Used to be a # of different chinese neighbourhoods  1887: white people feel chinese residens are an unfair economic compeitions and form anti chinese leagurs ii. Dupont Street as Dirty and Diseased – The White Invention of Chinatown  riot sets fire to chinese hoems and buisnesses  after order restored, chinese people rebuilt focused on dupont street  As much a product of whiteness as it was Chinese  White people referred to this as China town IV. Race and the Law: Saskatchewan and the White Women’s Labour Laws A. “Guardians of the Race”: White Merchants, White Labour, White Women, and White Slavery B. Laundries and Restaurants: Chinese Labour after the CPR  Limits for laudry places to tiny section of city  Had no choice but to not assimilate  Characterized chineses as dirty and diseased C. Race, Gender, Class, and the Law in the Regulation of White Working-Class Women and Asian-Canadian Men  Report of living conditions – critical with no understanding  No acknowledgement of disregard  1876: residents were so tired they applied for a license to conduct own street clean *China town was more a product of whiteness then it was chinese – segration and discrimination limitied them to certain areas* D. What is White? Historical Uncertainty Over the Definition of Whiteness  White womens labour laws made it illegal for chinese men to hire white women in their buisnesses  Preventing Asian men would serverly alter their potential for success  National Campaign for Women also wanted this (way to prevent interacial relations) White slave trade: notion that Asian men were luring white women and drugging them and selling them into the sex trade – no evidence in actual historial facts.  Chinese Canadian men were charged with employing white women  Unclear about what was chinese E. 1924 Case of Yee Clun: Asian-Canadian Resistance to White Law  Owner of exchange grill challenges law saying he must hire white women because of tied immigration laws  Regina newspaper made up stories about what chinese men did to white women  White women stood up for him  J.F.Blair a white lawyer spoke out in defence of him Heigh-Ho, Heigh-Ho: Industrialization and the Working Class I. Thinking about Capitalism in Canadian History  Capitalism – not a word that we hear all the time, often unnamed and taken for granted  Ordinary working people get left out – social and economic class gets left out o Formations and divisions of class  Economic framework for capitalist development needed II. Late-19 -Century Industrial Capitalist Development in Canada A. The National Policy  Three Prongs: o Railroad o Tariffs o Immigrations  All designed to create a home markets for the products of Canadian manufactures  1871-1891 = manufacturing employees increase largely  Majority of Canadians still live in agricultural areas and the capitalist transformation took place first in the country side B. The Rural Roots of Capitalism: the Productive Household and the Putting-Out System  People are trying to meet needs and merchants in rural areas see this and decided to give them raw materials for them to create and sell back to the merchant – called the “Out Work System” or the “Putting-Out System” III. Making of the Canadian Working Class A. From Farm to Factory  Saw it was easier if the people came to them instead and started a factory, providing employees with a wage  People who had once been self sufficient are now dependent  Making of Canadian working class – separation of home and work  Creating only part of product and doing the same thing over and over again B. Women Workers  1871 – 1 in 3 workers was a women – 1 in 7 was under 16  Realized they could pay women less (1/3 of men)  Women started demanding equal pay for equal work C. Class in Canadian History/Class as Cultural Experience  Distinction of class is rather fuzzy  Distinction between being a worker and being working class o Working class could be family and community, traditions and values o Class not as an economic dictator but cultural experience and inheritance  Canadian workers started to organize themselves into unions – industrial capitalism o Better working conditions and wages, shorter working days  Very first issues were a movement to secure a shorter working day and working week D. The Nine-Hour Pioneers, the ‘Great Upheaval’ and the Knights of Labor  Hamilton, 1872 – Alexander Wayfield was a poet who wrote a poem for the nine hour pioneers  Contributions of working people get left out but in late 19 century the working class could not be ignored – economic and political force to not be reckoned with  Great Uphevel – began with the skilled workers who organized themselves in unions based on crafts and then has banners and parades to demonstrate dignity of labour by parading through the city  1883- Canadian trades and labour conference formed  Also decade of Knights of Labour - “We’ll take skilled labours but we’ll also organize unskilled workers and women” o Had really unique cultural social vision that things should look different in Canada – romamticized o They had parades and picnics and fancy balls – these cultural activits formed “the glue cementing the bounds of unity” IV. Case Study: Coal Miners and their Communities in Nova Scotia A. Springhthl, N.S.  In late 19 century miners were central to this  They worked in fasted growing industry and faced critics  Powerful through strength of workplace conditions and working place communities  Springhill was affected by major movement of immigrants from Europe  Town bursting with optimisim of capitalism – proud, settled community  Birthplace of Provincial Workman’s Associations (PWA) – starts by organizing coal workers and ventured out to all workers o Fought strikes o Central to industrial revolution – well aware of strength  Confronted mine owner and he literally detested workers o Published posts in newspapers trashing them o Tried to break up miners unions and discriminated against members B. The Collective Power of Coal Miners  Took some time but eventually learned his lesson o Miners succeed because of extraordinary sense of collective identiy in community and deep pervasice solidarity (code of honour) i. Women and the Bonds of Community  Women ran serveices and raised large families o Had to keep community in order during strike o Responsed to threats to community with violence  Even salvation army in SpringHill refused to let strike breakers in because women would atterack ii. The Bonds of Work and Workers’ Control  Another strength of miners was the mine itself – extremely dangerous yet vast, complex machines o Way too big and subdivided for their to be a manager and supervisor to be there at all times led to key decision making falling on coal miners themselves- guided by own traditions and practices o Labour historians refer to this as “labour control” o Mines were really fragile and meant all little functions had to work completely in tandom  The way in which coal mining worked created dependency underground and reflected itself above ground in community solidarity  Connection meant that it nourished not liberal individualism but collectivism o Community stuck together iii. Confrontation and Combustion: Scientific Management and the Miners  Certain managers (swift) wanted to control miners tasks and converted to a movement called scienfitfic management – plan was to give more power management o Program stood no chance o Idea was defeated by the coal miners who resisted  Gun powder causes mine to explode killing everyone – SPRINGHILL MINE DISTASTER OF 1891 C. Child Labour  Coal depended on work of children i. Child Labour Laws  Beginning in 1880s a few provinces started to pass child labour laws – wasn’t prohibited unti 1929  Wasn’t easy decision for mining families to send children working in mine  Many boys were eager to quit school and go mining ii. Pit Boys’ Rituals, Work, and Power  Entering the mine caused rituals for “pit boys”  Full of mischief and pranks  Paint new boys face with oil, burn hair, blow of lamp and leave him  Once initiated the pit boys were brats in community  Common jobs for boys were trapper boys to open up doors  Managers were regularly faced with trapper boys who fell asleep and got runover  Not all jobs were quite bad – fabourite job was “pulling the rag” o Getting the coal down on dark shoots  Like their fathers, these pit boys found the mine gave them power  Pit boys fought 15 strikes on their own – almost all successful  1890 – swift breaks boys into different groups iii. Girls and Class Consciousness  Girls didn’t work in minds but absorbed same sense of class consioucness. D. Blood on the Coal  Around 23 men killed every year  Created very strong folk lord traditions to try to explain these things  Tried for better work safety laws and respect for their traditions  Mines would not run on day of death or burial  One of many groups who rocked the capitalism bought so roughly that they thought it might capsize altogether V. 150 Years of Capitalism and Counting  “Labour Day” Last Call: Booze and the Regulation of Leisure - Thousands agreed to make it their aim to swear off of booze - Temperance brigade followed by prohibitions - Biggest social movement I. The Historical Present: The Drinking Habits of History 124 Students - Prior to 1979 the drinking age in Ontario was 18 - How is it competing regulations on personal behavior come to be? Has the state always tried to regulate our personal behaviors? - Calls this the Age of Reform - Social reform movement was a combination of new movements all linked together - Introduction of wages called anxiety and many people related these cause to booze II. Drink in Pre-Industrial Canada A. Rise of the Breweries  Canada’s first brewery created in 1668 (Jean Talon) in Quebec City  1786- Molson in MTL – oldest brewery  1829- Alexander Keith opened brewery in Halifax  1847 – Labatt Brewery  B. Functions of Drink in Pre-Capitalist Society  Health measure (whiskey in morning)  Keep warm  Drinking water was unsafe so alcohol seem safer  Economic sense – price of milk double  Insurance companies refused to insure abstinence people  Common for worker to drink a quart or more  Would accept payment for work in rum  Farmers would take grain and sell for whiskey – absence of capitalism III. Taverns and Late-19 -Century Industrial Capitalism A. Taverns and Working-Class Culture: Joe Beef’s Canteen  Late 19 century, taverns were everywhere. 1/120 people in city  Important social center – social, economic, political centers  Rebellions were hatched in taverns  Most working class neighborhoods  Women were not unfamiliar in taverns but mainly male places  MTL, Joe Beef opened tavern in late 1860s o Part of MTL underworld o Located on waterfront in working class Irish neighbourhood o Bar would furnished with wood furniture and sawdust o Two skeletons behind bar – went along with stories o Joe’s canteen and many monkeys, parrots, and wild cats kept in basement and let out every now and then to entertain patron o Drinking beers – Jenny and Tom (20 pints of beer): amusement o Center piece was character of Joe Beef himself: “Son of the people”  Never refused drink to poor man o Metal box by door to collect money for MTL hospitals  Example of generosity and crowd o Also served as hospital for homeless and unemployed: 10 cents for blanket and could sleep on bunks o Closely connected to surrounding working class community – when labor workers went on strike Joe Beef was there to help them out and provided bread and soup – paid for travel expenses of workers o A vital place for working people B. Reformers on the Waterfront  Descanted from middle class neighbourhoods to “the city below the hill”  Set up “The Montreal Sailers Institiue” to find food, writing station, and library  YMCA – reform organizations found themselves in neighbourhoods next to Joe Beefs  Workers at YMCA witnessed street brawls and called the police leading to arrests o Big disturbance – lack of understanding IV. The Temperance Movement - Emerged in mid to late 19 century A. Pledges, Lodges, and Liberal Individualism  Temperance groups sets up lodges – produced own newspapers – goal was to temper drinkning habits  Encouraged to take pledge to not drink and not serve to anyone else o Little cards signing with oath o Thousands signed these cards  Ralies to stop drinking  Whether adopting moderation or total absinsnce – believed the decision not to drink should be a voluntary decision by the person and not demand by the state  In this way, movement reflected liberal individualism V. The Prohibition Movement A. The Canada Temperance Act and Legal Regulation - In contrast, the prohibitionist believed it was too hard voluntarily - Breaking liberal individualism and pushing state intervention - Mass demonstrations and lobbying government (Womens Christian Temperance Union) - 1876: pressure to push Scott Act – right to hold referendum to see in state will go dry - 1869: band all alchohol within Northwest Territories - Northwest Mountain Police created to establish liquor laws - Sergent Sam Martin: get in trouble from drininking due to working class B. Pro-Prohibition: Middle-Class Women /Working-Class Men - Working through churchs who were advocates - Women were able to use association with moral purity for an agruemtn to allow them to be political advoactes on this issue - Some created feminist critique: move to get women to vote emerges from women who got political experience through prohibition movement - Organized labour movement strongly favoured prohibition o Band alchohol consumption miles from coal mines o Working class was not an homogenous groups  Biggest division was skilled workers and unskilled workers o Skilled workers all about respectability and paraded to show pride in craftmenship and to show they were respectable  Sober, disciplined worker created a better labour movement  “Drink will break a strike sooner than everything else” C. Opponents of Prohibition: French Canada - Include small “L” liberals: opposed because they saw it as an infrigment of indivual rights: make decision themselves - Catholic and englican churches – congregations were competitive for the souls of Canadians and they viewed it as a Methodist plot to take members - French Canada opposed degree of prohibition (wanted wine) D. Royal Commissions, Referendums, and National Prohibition - Prohibitionists were relentless - 1892: appoints royal commission on liquor traffic in canda - 1898: Laurer forced to call a nation referendum on prohibition - Results were a majority for dry in every province except of Quebec - Low voter turnout created a side step from Laurier - Prohibitionists turned to provinces - Becomes unpatriotic to be drinking when people overseas are flighting - 1916: all provinces agree to go dry VI. After Prohibition A. Bootleggers and Blind Pigs - Rum running becomes popular - Created famous family wealth through bootlegging - Ordinary Canadians had to drink in a blind pig o Someones house where they would get illegal booze - Being illegal – blind pigs were frequently raided - Prohibition provided pretext for more policing B. Workers, Soldiers and a Crumbling Consensus - Labour movement starts to reconsider opinion of prohibition - End of war: thousands of vetrans coming home and are told they cant drink - Ranks of wet voices start to swell - End of 1920s, all provinces except PEI - Canada starts to supply American speakeasies C. Historical Significance of Prohibition: State Regulation of Personal Conduct - People begin to rethink whether the evils they saw could actually be explained by booze: booze a symptom not the cause - Capitalism is in fact the culprit - Economic system that made few people rich in expense of others - Concentrate on other issues such as urban poverty - Church pushed protecting weak from capitalism (churches as progressive forces) - Prohibition had always been more than to drink or not to drink – reaching change on habits of the people o Didn’t stop people from drinking - Revolutionary impact: not in drinking habits but rather in reshaping peoples mentalitys that they came to accept it was okay for the state to have a roll in regulate peoples behaviors - Brought thousands of Canadians in support of the state having a say in how you can live your personal life – paving the way D. The Funeral of Joe Beef - January 15 , 1889 - Funeral grounded abstract ideas - 50 labour unions walked off the job Sex in a Cold Climate: Sexuality and the Regulation of the Self I. A Queen’s Student’s “Adventure in Fairyland,” 1932  Keith: second year art student o Went to hotel and hit streets – on corner of bay and dundas he gets arrested o Found women’s clothes and perfume and makeup and brought him to the station o According to police: the charge was made for masquerading as a women o According to Keith: big understanding, was part prank and part experiment saying he formulated it with queens students II. Thinking Sex Historically A. The Historical Present: Sex in the News  In newspapers everywhere – reflection of culture  What does knowing that there has always been sex tell us? o Simple existence doesn’t take us very far historically or analytically  However the way they have been regulated and political movements tell us more B. Sex is not in your genes/jeans! C. Sexual Acts vs. Sexual Meanings/Sexual Regulation/Sexual Politics  Three concepts you can use to understand sexuality history III. Sexual Meanings  Your own personal meaning for an act changes over time according to person, place, or time – it can have a bunch of different meanings A. “The White Life for Two”  Dominant sexual meaning to be considered legitimate “had to be between a married male and female and when they had sex it had to be for procreation” also “women were supposed to be passionless and men were supposed to act with sexual chivalry and restraint” – phrase used at the time was “the white life for two”  Also defined dominant sexual meaning in terms of race –white means purity and whiteness  Sexual can very rarely be reduced to dominant sexual meaning  Even within strictures – some married couples might practice a very different sexual identity (place of passion or pleasure) B. Pleasure and Procreation: Annie and the Fourth Prime Minister of Canada  John Thompson (4 PM), letters of john and Annie in Library and archives Canada  Diary suggests her and John falling in love and defies notion of female passionless  Wrote letters in a special code to talk about sex  Annie was really independent and noted about arguments with John for wifely things and argued with John about political matters – relationship between equals  Annie carried the weight of the procreative imperative – spend most of adult life pregnant – nine pregnancies – raising five children C. Power and Patriarchy: Mary and Sexual Violence in Kingston, 1908  For many women, the meaning attached to sexuality was power  105 years ago Feb. 1908, 18-year-old Mary was without work blown and vulnerable – sleeping in boat.  Explained this to James who bought her food and went with him to have sex  She didn’t understand that once back at the place there would be four men to rape her  Sexual violence was regarded as a crime against a girls father rather than her o Meaning of shame brought on her family  Feminism changed this meaning of sexual violence – HUGE CHANGE in less than 100yrs. D. Pansies and Personal Identities  Personal identity was a meaning that got attached to sexuality  Keith = “pansy boy” – personal identity adopted for themselves even o Poked fun at them but not a lot of homophobic stuff  How did you declare your identity in those days? Cultural identity IV. Sexual Regulation  For most of 19 century, sexual regulation many occurred at level of community A. Community-Level Regulation  Gossip is a good form of community sexual regulation  Keeps people in line i. The Church  Good at itemizing all forbidden sinful things  Had pretty effective techniques for finding out when you strayed off the path-confession ii. The Charivari  Long standing ritual in which people would come together outside house of couple that they felt did something wrong (ex. age gap, etc.) – usually at night and they would create an awfully loud commotion and the point was the way for the community to express displeasure for what you were up to  As late as 1922, tarred and feathered a man who’s affair with a married women was assumed to be a cause of husbands suicide iii. The University: Queen’s ASUS in the Early 20 Century  From 1890 on, ASUS closely regulated the behaviour of queens students and acted very much like – trails and punishments – lots of charges – related to clothing  Regulated men’s sexual lives – 1931: male student charges with sleeping with a male Macmaster student – evidence Vaseline and shoe horns  Membership in ASUS was restricted to male students – women were enforced to live in all female residences – your activates were closely supervised – women and men were not allowed to share the same dorm until 1972 – when Morris Hall went Co-Ed B. State-Level Regulation  Urbanization and sex: more people living closer together and away from prying eyes  Capitalism allows for more money in young peoples pockets, going to amusement parks, dance halls, the movies – everything brand new and costs money – made it sexy to get young people  All of these changes become a source of anxiety i. The Law: The Criminal Code of 1892; The Female Refuges Act, 1897  1892: very first criminal code.  Laws about age of consent, rape, decently, birth control, abortion o Created the most comprehensive set of moral sexual laws  Laws are whipped around and used against women  Female refuges act: legislation that allowed for concentration on young women for being management (Girls gone wild) – their parents and society did not approve of – most charges were against those under 21 o No criminal charge or trial was necessary – parents or police just had to say they were out of control  Girl’s bf was Chinese and she was pregnant. Went to reformatory where son was taken away from her o After release married Harrys father and stripped of citizenship ii. The Police: Prostitution and Public Sex  Efforts to police prostitution  Toronto morality squad in 1876: arresting street walkers and raiding brothels  Police set up official red light district – positions not arrested but had to submit to medical exams  No zones of toleration for homosexuality activity V. Sexual Politics  When sexuality bursts onto public stream A. The Social Purity Movement: Masturbation and the Liberal State  One more example of the age of reform – tackled a wide range of sex related issues  Prostitution was their favourite target  “Secret, solitary vice” “great sin of self abuse” – masturbation o Concern for young Canadians ran high – produced pamphlets for anti-masturbation – looked like prayer book where supposed to remind you to read devotedly and not doing sexual deeds – contained pictures to tell you what would happen – terrorized from temptations o Most of ills have origin in stomach – direct connection between food and sex – needed plain food to not irritate you sexually o Special cracker “Graham crackers” invented to prevent kids from masturbation o Lessons were reinforced in schools o Corn flakes as well  ANTI-LIBERAL – brings state to dilemma  Social purity movement stems in to do states dirty work  Demonstrates about the way in which meanings of sexual history changes B. The Birth Control Movement  Many couples wanted to have sex for pleasure (race suicide – decline in birthrate)  Birth control was illegal at this time – recommates twin beds – “safe period”  You could find condoms later one  When birth control failed, many Canadian women turned to abortion – many women would not belive that they were actually committing a crime – morally admissible until third trimester  Canadian birth control legue: to get women info on birth control  1932: first birth control clinic in Hamilton, Ontario  Gets caught up in eugenics movement – prevent unwanted people reproducing  Couples who sought to limit family size, women seeking abortion, velma marrying Asian man, - committing act of resistance The Seduction Act: made it illegal to seduce young women: Last 19 Century – Victorian – “daughter viewed as father’s property” - If a women consented to sexual activity on promise that he would marry her then he left she could charge him with a seduction charge- It was often fathers who laid these charges - Persecution would be jail and/or money Lest We Forget What? Memory and the Multiple Meanings of War - 158 Canadian soliders lost live in afganistan - 58% though aftganistan was not worth while - it is possible to support our military personal at the same as it possible to be critical of war I. 158: Worthwhile or a Waste? A. The Historical Present - 158 Canadian soliders lost live in afganistan - 58% though aftganistan was not worth while - it is possible to support our military personal at the same as it possible to be critical of war B. Historical Memory and Counter-Memory - Dynamics between historical memory and conter memory - Simple enough idea – notion of counter memory speaks there is something it is conter too and counter memory is ways remembering the past that run counter too the original definition is  Foucaults idea about counter memory was power  Don’t all memories have the same power  Some memories have more power or cultural sway then others.  - Canadian government promotes the official memory of the First World War – all kinds of memories doesn’t mean that they all enjoy the same cultural circulation II. Official Memory and the First World War – the Case of Vimy Ridge  Over 3000 killed and 7000 wounded – huge sacrifice allowed for prime minister borden to declare that Canada needs more say  After vimy it was the Canadian Aurther Currey made commander  Secured canadas place on world stage – took place in league of nations A. The Officer’s Memory: For the Glory of the Nation  War was crucible where Canada emerged  Battles synonymous with Canada becoming a nation  “I became a Canadian on the top of Vimy Ridge” B. The Soldier’s Memory: Work and Whale Oil  Bourg: claustrophobic and difficult work  Whale oil: rub on feet to prevent trench feet  Many men were called on an attachment of other soldiers  Find very few sentilmental reflections  Majority of soldiers in Canadian core where recent british immigrants – also many actual british troops C. Memorializing Vimy: 1930s  After war was over, writers, military officials, poets, and politicans gave memorial view  Flander’s fields – gave Canadians lines to memorize  189 queens students died in WW1  1930s: busy years in the making of vimys memory  1931: statue of westminter – gave Canadians actual diplomatic and political indendence o Shape subsequent returns to vimy ridge  1936: vimy memorial revealed in france – thousands of Canadian vetrans when to france for ceremony  August 1934: Toronto has weekend long reunion for vetrans  Wanted to recapture vimy and their citizens to the service  Depression period – memory of vimy reminded them of happiness  Horrors and experiences of soldiers slip for view D. The Historian’s Memory: Old School/New School  Military history = the most nationalist branch  Sealing the nationalist vision of vimy even today  This often happens during moments of denounced nationalism  Not all historians adopt this agenda o “Vimy Ridge – A Canadian Reassement” o where divisions of race were brought to the surface o conscription crisis  legend relies on soldiers pair ultimate price for patriotic love  national belonging is not something you are born with but something that is learned o cadet movement and militia  appeal to manliness and militarism III. Counter-Memories A. Boys to Men: Masculinity and Militarism  cadet system in schools  1914: 40000 cadets - by 18, old enough to join milita  5 field company composed entirely of queens students – “school of manliness” B. Race and Recruitment  appeal to empire – gave Canadian military efforts a really strong anglico-saxon front o “White man’s war” o aboriginals and black men turned down o however white people applying drop and then the government turns in the direction of conscription and racial barriers are dropped  you didn’t have to be a visible minority to run counter to Canadian war efforts  over 500000 people who trace orgins to enemy counters sent to miliaty camps D. Women at Work and at
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