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HIST 209 After First Test

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HIST 209
Peter Campbell

HIST 209 II Tues Feb 25/14 The Radical Sixties • 3 major changes (Bumsted): o Liberalization of moral values  Easier divorce, more open to discussing sexuality  Reflected at level of state, Trudeau’s statement that the state had no business in the bedrooms of the nation • Changes to divorce laws (1968), criminal code (1969), removing “indecent acts” between consenting adults o Rise of youth counter culture and rebellion  Young middle class youth rejecting values and politics of middle class parents  Aided by increased number of universities being opened  Primarily ignited by opposition to Vietnam War • Prefect symbol of everything wrong with mainstream American society • Anti-American sentiment, fueled by anti-war American professors • American draft dodgers contributed to Canadian culture, founding and editing journals, organizations  In Quebec, deadlier turn with formation of FLQ • Compared Quebecois to colonized peoples of Africa, Asia, exploited by colonizing American capitalists • Radical youth were not as cut off from older generation as the English o Both generations in favour of independence • Rene Levesque not member of FLQ, but called English Canadians Rhodesians o New energized collective minorities  Black rights struggle embodied in Women’s Liberation Movement and the Committee on Equality for Women (1966, inspired 1967 Royal Commission) • 1959 o Formation of Combined Universities Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CUCND) • 1961 o Creation of the New Democratic Party under the leadership of Tommy Douglas • 1963 o March 8, the Front de Liberation du Quebec (FLQ) bombing campaign begins  65-year-old night watchman Wilfrid O’Neill is killed by an FLQ bomb o Lester Pearson becomes Prime Minister at the head of a minority Liberal government o November 22, assassination of John F. Kennedy • 1964 – adoption of new Canadian flag • 1965 o Founding of the Student Union for Peace Action (SUPA)  New Left that rejected bureaucracy and capitalism in all its forms  Preceded by Toronto organization CUCND • Undercut by 1963 decision to allow nuclear warheads on Canadian soil o July, Bob Dylan releases “Like a Rolling Stone” and ‘goes electric’ at the Newport Folk Festival • 1967 o Centennial celebrations and Expo 67 o Appointment of the Royal Commission on the Status of Women  Feminists employed rhetoric of colonial language to call for freedom from male patriarchal “masters”  Problem for the New Left: sexual double standard, male radicals still judged women more harshly, made them serve at meetings; many also racist  Feminists criticized Marx’s failure to make women central to his theory of alienation, no mention of gender oppression o Rene Levesque resigns from the Quebec Liberal Party o Leafs win Stanley Cup • 1968 o Pierre Trudeau becomes Liberal Leader, Liberals win majority in federal election o Organization of the Parti Quebecois • 1969 o Official Languages Act o Montreal attracted a number of black activists, including Trinidadian Marxist C.L.R. James, who inspired student protests  Protesting students trash the computer room at Sir George Williams (now Concordia) University in Montreal • 87 students arrests, around 50% black o One student, Ann Cools, later appointed to Senate by Trudeau o The Waffle (NDP)  Should waffle to the left rather than the right, believe CP not viable but NDP has been shifting to the right  Should look at American control over Canadian economy  Linked socialism and nationalism, should have only government controlled investment and industries, and redistribution of power, to survive  One of the leaders, Mel Watkins, saidrdanada should move away from American, was too dependent, like a 3 world nation  Another leader and New Leftist, James Laxer, believed Canadian left too concerned with American war and civil rights movement • Canada needed to be taken in more fully-Marxist direction  Document entitled “For an Independent Socialist Canada” is written, attributed to Ed Broadbent, NDP Leader • Became known as the Waffle Manifesto, puts Marxist spin on it • Called for independent socialism Canada with public ownership of means of production  Later, widespread condemnation both within and without the NDP • Labour leaders accused it of elitism and anti-Americanism, and of opposing its ideas on the workers • 1970 o Formation of the Committee for an Independent Canada  Forum for less radical nationalists (than the Waffle) o October Crisis • 1971 o Homosexuals had to fight prejudice in labour movement, feminists, black rights  First organizations opened in Toronto, Montreal in 1970-1 o At the NDP National Convention James Laxer launches a strong challenge for the party leadership but loses to David Lewis  Waffle resolution for Quebec independence defeated, but had 1/3 support  NDP Leader David Lewis defeated Laxer, showed it could mobilize 30- 40% of NDP support base if needed o October, relations between Waffle and trade union leaders deteriorated  Ontario leader Steven Lewis called it a party within a party • Was a campaign for an independent socialist Canada, greater economic and cultural independence from US • 1972 o June, the Waffle is expelled from the NDP by vote of 217-88  Expelled members organized the Movement for an Independent Socialist Canada; fell apart because of internal struggling • Taken over by more radical leftists Thurs Feb 27/14 Constitutional Crisis • 1971 o The Trudeau Liberals adopt multiculturalism as official government policy • 1972 o Trudeau Liberals re-elected in extremely tight contest • 1973 o Beginning of the energy crisis o The Parti Quebecois becomes the official opposition in the Quebec provincial election • 1974 o Trudeau Liberals win federal election • 1976 o Parti Quebecois elected o Montreal Olympics • 1977 o PQ government passes Bill 101 • 1979 o The Conservatives under Joe Clark win the federal election, but the government falls in December • 1980 o The Liberals under Pierre Trudeau win the federal election o The first Quebec referendum asked for a mandate for PQ to negotiate sovereignty-association with the rest of Canada  Result is 60% “no” and 40% “yes” o Referendum and aftermath  In a speech in Montreal on May 16, Trudeau promised that a “non” vote would compel his government to “renew the constitution”  May 20, just under 60% of Quebec voters voted “non” to negotiating sovereignty-association  After the referendum, Trudeau announced his intention to repatriate the Constitution  Sept 28, 1981, Supreme Court ruled that while the federal government’s plan to repatriate the constitution was unconventional, it was technically legal  Nov 5, 1981, all the provincial premiers, with the exception of Levesque, supported Trudeau • Called “night of the long knives”, stabbed in the back Quebec when left out of agreement  When the Constitution was repatriated in 1982, Quebec did not sign • 1981 o PQ re-elected in Quebec o The nine English-Canadian provinces and the federal government cut a deal on the Constitution  Quebec is excluded and refuses to sign; still had not signed on o Terry Fox dies of cancer after running halfway across Canada • 1982 o Trudeau retires and is replaced by John Turner o The Conservatives sweep the federal election under leader Brian Mulroney o April 17, Constitution Act  The Queen and PM Trudeau sign Canada’s constitutional proclamation  Section 33, the “notwithstanding clause”, allows provincial legislatures to pass legislation contravening certain Charter rights (not democratic rights such as the right to vote) • A provincial override lasts five years, at which time it can be re- enacted by the provincial legislature  End of “colony to nation” story – acquired right to mend own constitution • 1987 o The federal government and the provinces adopt the Meech Lake Agreement that recognizes Quebec as a “distinct society”  PM Brian Mulroney and the 10 provincial premiers arrived at the agreement to bring Quebec into Constitution  All 10 provincial legislatures had to ratify the Accord by June 23 ,1990  In the Manitoba legislature, Aboriginal member Elijah Harper prevented the Accord from being ratified by June 23, 1990, and it died  After the failure of Meech, Lucien Bouchard left Brian Mulroney’s Conservative government to help found the Bloc Quebecois o Reform Party organized under the leadership of Preston Manning in October o November 1, death of Rene Levesque • 1988 o The Conservatives win a second sweeping victory in the federal election  The key issue is free trade with the US • Political flip: Liberals are protectionists, Conservatives are free traders • 1990 o Failure of the Meech Lake Accord o Lucien Bouchard leaves the Conservative Party and forms the Bloc Quebecois o Jean Chretien becomes Liberal leader o Oka Crisis • 1992 o Rejection of the Charlottetown Accord in a national referendum • 1993 o Jean Chretien’s Liberals win a majority in the federal election • 1995 o Referendum  The “yes” side was led by Jacques Parizeau, leader of the PQ that won the 1994 Quebec provincial election and Lucien Bouchard, leader of the Bloc Quebecois  Oct 27, 1995, some 15,000-20,000 Canadians poured into Montreal for a huge federalist rally  Oct 30, final result was 50.6% “no” and 49.4% “yes”  Jacques Parizeau blamed the “no” defeat on “money and the ethnic vote” • 1997 o Jean Chretien and the federal Liberals re-elected • 1998 o Lucien Bouchard and the Parti Quebecois win the Quebec provincial election o Bouchard promises another referendum when the “winning conditions” are in place • The Notwithstanding Clause o Dec 15, 1988, Supreme Court ruled that Quebec’s French-only sign law was unconstitutional, but added that French could have “marked predominance” on outdoor commercial signs o Bill 178, Quebec premier Robert Bourassa invoked the notwithstanding clause to restore French-only commercial signs outdoors, but allowed multilingual signs indoors as long as the French was “markedly predominant” o 1993, Quebec’s Liberal government passed Bill 86 in conformity with the Supreme Court’s suggestion in 198, which allowed English on outdoor signs as long as French had “marked predominance” • Charlottetown Accord o Nov 1990, PM Brian Mulroney announced “A Citizen’s Forum on Canada’s Future” o 400,000 Canadian appeared before the Forum to present their ideas on the future of the country o The Accord was agreed to by federal, provincial, and territorial leaders, as well as leaders of the Assembly of First Nations, the Native council of Canada, the Inuit Tapirisat of Canada, and the Metis National Council on August 28, 1992 o The Accord recognized Quebec as “a distinct society”, and also recognized Aboriginal self-government as “one of three orders of government in Canada” o In the referendum held on Oct 26, 1992, the “No” side defeated the “Yes” side by vote of 54.3% to 45.7% • June 2000, Clarity Act o Gives the House of Commons the power to decide if a proposed referendum question is clear o Requires a clear majority, not just a vote of “50%+1”, for a vote in favour of sovereignty to be considered legitimate o In the case of a clear majority, it declares that the secession of a province of Canada requires an amendment to the Constitution Tues Mar 4/14 Before and After 9/11 • 1993 o March, soldiers of the Canadian Airborne Regiment beat 16-year-old Shidane Arone to death in Somalia  “Peace enforcement mission”  Clayton Matchee (aboriginal) tries to commit suicide, considered unfit for trial o Jean Chretien leads Liberals to landslide victory in federal election  Conservatives under leader Kim Campbell are almost wiped out, winning 2 seats o Bloc Quebecois under Lucien Bouchard wins 54 seats in the federal election and becomes “Her Majesty’s Loyal Opposition”, a “Loyal Opposition” dedicated to breaking up the country • 1994 o Parti Quebecois wins the Quebec provincial election under leader Jacques Parizeau • 1995 o In the Quebec referendum 50.6% of respondents vote “non” and 49.4% vote “oui” to negotiate independence for Quebec o Canadian Airborne Regiment disbanded • 1997 o The Liberals under Chretien are easily re-elected  Reform Party wins 60 seats in the prairie provinces and BC to form official opposition o The Commission of Enquiry into the “Somalia Affair” makes its final report, forcefully criticizing the leadership of the Canadian Forces • 1999 o Organization of the Alliance, composed primarily of Reform Party members and disgruntled Conservatives • 2000 o July, Stockwell Day becomes leader of the Alliance o Liberals win a third mandate under Chretien  Liberal popular vote increases to 40.8% from 38.4% in 1997, and the number of seats increased from 155 to 172 • 2001 o September 11, attack on the World Trade Centre o Fear of being further drawn into the American orbit  US emerged from Cold War as world’s only superpower  Canada continued its long-standing policy of multilateralism, as opposed to American unilateralism • Canadians act in concert with the international community • Canada accepted increased call for border security, contributed troops to Afghanistan in 2002 (first deployment of land troops since Korean War) • 2002 o November, Paul Martin Jr. succeeds Chretien as Liberal Party leader o November, Chretien’s Communications Director Francoise Ducros calls Bush a moron  Ducros forced to resign o Committed military troops to Afghanistan, “Canada moved beyond its traditional role of peacekeeping” • 2003 o Canadian Alliance and Progressive Conservative Party unite to form the Conservative Party of Canada o February, Carolyn Parrish heard saying “damn Americans, I hate the bastards” o August, became single largest contributor to UN security force in Afghanistan  Remained skeptical of Bush’s claims about weapons of mass destruction in Iraq • Chretien called for hard evidence, leading Liberal critics to say he was not being supportive enough, like Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962 (except was Conservative Diefenbaker) • 2004 o March 20, Stephen Harper is elected leader of the Conservative Party o June 28, the Liberal Party under Paul Martin Jr forms a minority government following the federal election • 2006 o May, Nichola Goddard dies in Afghanistan, Canada’s first woman soldier killed in combat o June, the “Toronto 18” are arrested  Ratted out by young Muslim Toronto man  Had been planning to kill hundreds of people in Toronto and Ottawa o Federal election results in a Conservative minority government o Paul Martin Jr resigns as Liberal leader o Harper increases role in Afghanistan, Canada given responsibility for Kandahar, the south eastern section where fight against Taliban was most intense  Both Liberal and Conservative governments had shifted Canadian role from peacekeeping to combat • Canada had fewer than 60 peacekeepers with UN, most were police • 2008 o Election of a majority Conservative government o Stephen Harper pledges that Canada will remove combat troops from Afghanistan by the end of 2001 • 2010 o January, one of the main organizers of the “Toronto 18” is sentenced to life in prison o June, G20 summit protests in Toronto • 2011 o Election of a Conservative majority government • Number of people thought to be Communists detained without warrants, interrogated, deported during Cold War o Half convicted, those who incriminated themselves found guilty  Most who resisted were acquitted but still lost their jobs o Regardless if information was dangerous, if was confidential they were arrested o People officially named traitors under public interrogation  Witch hunts happened behind closed doors, many forced out of jobs o Many American Communists later turned into heroes, not the case in Canada • Post-9/11 o October 15, 2001, Anti-Terrorism Act  Amended criminal code to allow council to provide list of terrorist organizations  Requires financial institutions to freeze assets of anyone on list of terrorist organizations suspected of engaging in or supporting terrorist activity • Required to regard with suspicion not just those on the list, but anyone whose name resembles a listed person o Required to submit the names of both parties to Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) or the RCMP o Sept 2002, Maher Arar kidnapped by American authorities in New York on his way home to Canada from a family vacation  Sent to a Syrian prison where he was tortured for a year before being released  Fall 2006, inquiry reported that he was innocent, said Canadian officials had given Americans false information  Arar paid $10 million, called Canadian of the Year  Political scientist Redge Whittaker said shows marked difference between the way Arar was treated by Canadians and by US, which practiced torture and deports terror suspects to countries that practice torture • Canada can participate in war on terror because it acts multilaterally o US acts unilaterally o But because that multilateral initiative is under control of US, Canada must be careful not to let sovereignty be threatened Thurs Mar 3/14 Ethnicity, Immigration, Multiculturalism • Unity in Diversity essay o Canada: Unity in Diversity (1967), diversity meant English and French Canadians o Look at course reader Palmer article for example of way to organize essay • 1867-1920, immigrants appeared as a threat o 1896-1914, 3 million immigrants came to Canada, peaking at 400,000 in 1913, the all-time immigration high in Canada to date, dropped off with WWI o Policy based on idea of preferred and non-preferred immigrant groups  British and Americans at top, then western Europeans and Scandinavians, then central and eastern Europeans, Jews, and Southern Europeans, then religious sects, then Asians and Blacks o Immigrant fees raised significantly from $50 to $500, making immigration all but impossible for most labourers o 1908, following many years of South Asian (many Sikhs) immigration, government required all immigrants to come to Canada on a continuous journey  Blatant effort to exclude Asian immigrants, effectively ended South Asian immigration because there was no direct steamship line from India to Canada • Period in early 1900s where prejudice against English immigrants was visible in “no English need apply” signs in Toronto o Certain industries, Southern Europeans preferred to English labourers  English seen as city people who did not know how to do manual labour • Other exceptions o Periods of anti-Semitism o Periods where a person’s politics could change their ethnicity or skin colour • Most social reformers (socialists, feminists, labour leaders) shared general Anglo-Celtic fear of intermarriage and ethnic pluralism o Overwhelmingly white, middle-class, said unfair that ignorant black men can vote when middle-class white women cannot o Recent immigrants should learn English, become Christian, give up foods and customs, accept superiority of British culture and politics • Aboriginals ignored, widespread assumption that they are becoming extinct • Powerful eugenics movement, social reformers increasingly concerned about “feeble minded” o Panic that the white race is degenerating, allowing ascendency of Blacks and Asians o Anti-immigrant, but mostly concerned with immigrants from Britain, especially the Irish • Woodsworth’s movement to Canadianize and Christianize “these people” – eastern Europeans o They were already Christians, but Eastern or Catholic Orthodox, not Protestants o White means Anglo-Celtic Protestant; not a descriptor of skin colour o No hyphenated Canadians (e.g. Hungarian-Canadians), English is national language o But Bourassa in Quebec talked about them as “scum”, Canada is bilingual and bicultural o Once Black people become Protestants, they become White • After WWI, “myth of the master race” was challenged; no longer “Anglo-conformity” o Replaced by the “melting pot” theory  Posited creation of a new Canadian type and posited the advantages of cultural mixing (usually just in food)  Insisted on eventual assimilation to British norms and values  Argument that English Canadians tended to be more insecure with their identities than Americans  Did not extend to ethnic radicals • Substantial majority (80%) of Communist Party members were Finnish, Jewish, or Ukrainian o Small minority of intellectuals that are beginning to espouse the “cultural mosaic”  Word “mosaic” first used by American travel writer Victoria Hayward when describing the settlement patterns in the prairies  John Murray Gibbon, a British-born CPR publicist turned “mosaic” into a “governing metaphor for the country”  Initially employed by CPR to promote tourism o 1923, passage of Chinese Exclusion Act  Aboriginals, Chinese, Japanese, and South Asians could not vote o 1920s, slow immigration, but CPP allowed greater movement • Great Depression, immigration slowed to a trickle o Previously immigrant jobs now taken up by Anglo-Celtics  Now questioned why all the foreigners had “our jobs” • After WWII, “cultural pluralism” o Happened because of the Holocaust; 1940s vote for Chinese, Japanese, South Asians; internment camps cause inward looking; UN Declaration of Human Rights written with help by a Canadian; new state of Israel; creation of Pakistan; anti-colonial movement o Changing perception of immigrants politically (less left-wing) Tues Mar 11/14 Paper – unity is based in diversity, do not ignore divisions like left and right leanings Asian Immigration to British Colombia Vancouver Riot of 1907 • Anti-Japanese riot, but most damage done in Chinese district; lasted 3 days o Not all rioters were white, some were Japanese o No deaths, but hostilities last decades • Labour movement blamed, full of racists, but politicians, clergymen, doctors, immigration officials were just as racist, if not more • May 14, 1905 o Formation of the Asiatic Exclusion League in San Francisco, California • August 12, 1907 o Formation of an Asiatic Exclusion League in Vancouver, British Colombia • September 7, 1907 o Few days before, anti-Sikh riot in Bellingham, Ohio o A rally organized by the Asiatic Exclusion League is held at Vancouver City Hall  Incited by racist speeches, a mob of 5,000-10,000 people marched into the Chinese area of the city, smashing windows and causing thousands of dollars in damage  The mob then moves on to the Japanese area of the city, causing less damage because the residents fought back with bottles and clubs • 1949, first Chinese man born in Canada became first to vote • Issues o Do events such as the Vancouver Riots suggest that historically Canadians have been just as racist as Americans? o Can it be argued that Canadians have been less racist because property, not people, was attacked during the riot? o Can the Riot be blamed on American agitators, or were they simply exploiting an already existing racist political culture? Komagata Maru • Roughly 5,300 South Asians came to Canada between 1905 and 1914 o Small percentage of total immigrants in the same period • Out migration to the US, and South Asians returning to the Punjab, reduced the population to less than 2,000 by the beginning of WWI • Peak South Asian population of roughly 4,000 was reached in 1907 (year of Vancouver Riot) • January 1908 o “Continuous journey” rule was adopted, virtually eliminating all South Asian immigration to Canada • November 1913, three dozen South Asian immigrants were admitted to BC o In response to nativist outrage, PM Borden’s Conservative cabinet passed an order-in-council on December 8, 1913, temporarily prohibiting labourers and artisans from entering the province • Early 1914, Gurdit Singh Sarhali, a native of the Punjab, chartered a Japanese-owned ship, the Komagata Maru, to carry 376 passengers (340 Sikhs, 24 Muslims, 12 Hindus) to Canada • May 23, 1914, Komagata Maru anchored off Vancouver because not allowed to dock o While anchored offshore, one passenger died, and at one point the passengers repulsed an attempt to board the ship by 150 police and immigration officers • July 23, 1914, Komagata Maru was forced to sail, with thousands of Vancouver residents cheering its departure on the docks • September 29, 1914, the ship arrived at Budge Budge, 14 miles south of Calcutta India, having been denied entry to Hong Kong, Kobe, Yokohama, and Singapore o In the evening, an attempt to capture Gurdit Singh resulted in the deaths of 20 Sikhs, 2 European officers, 2 Indian police and 2 local residents Ghadar • Following the increased immigration of South Asians in 1906, there was growing tension in BC between Sikh radicals on the one hand, and Sikh loyalists and Canadian immigration officials on the other • February 1909, William Hopkinson, a native of India, was hired as an immigration inspector, and later became chief assistant to the Canadian inspector of immigration • 1909, Canadian immigration officials were increasingly concerned about Sikh militants who served in the British army repudiating that service (would not wear medals, etc.) • June 1913, the Ghadar movement was organized on the west coast of the US and Canada o Led by radical Punjabi nationalist Lala Har Dayal (Hardayal), Ghadar was dedicated to the overthrow of British rule in India and to fighting the racist and discriminatory immigration policies of Canada and the US • Summer and fall of 1914, anger concerning the Komagata Maru incident, and rising tension among Sikh militants caused by the surveillance of William Hopkinson and his agents, resulted in violence • August 17, 1914, Harnam Singh, one of Hopkinson’s agents, disappeared and was later found dead o A second Hopkinson agent, Arjan Singh, was killed next • September 5, 1914, Bela Singh, another Hopkinson informant, shot and killed Bhag Singh and Bhattan Singh inside the Sikh temple in Vancouver • Oct 21, 1914, Mewa Singh shot William Hopkinson to death in the corridors of the Vancouver Court House o Oct 30, jury took 5 minutes to find Mewa Singh guilty, hanged January 11, 1915 • Questions o How to fit Mewa Singh into Canadian story?  Commemorated by some Sikh Canadians • Celebrated as resistance to racist immigration laws Legacies of Anti-Asian Racism in Canada • June 22, 2007, PM Stephen Harper issued a federal apology in Parliament for the government’s imposition of a head tax on Chinese immigrants between 1885 and 1923 and for the exclusion of Chinese immigrants between 1923 and 1947 • August 3, 2008, Harper apologized to Canada’s Sikh community for the Komagata Maru incident o Sikh leaders rejected the Surrey Park, British Colombia because it was not a “full” apology given in the House of Commons (as Chinese had received the year before) • Memorial to Komagata Maru incident erected in Harbour Green Park in Vancouver • The execution of Mewa Singh is still commemorated by Sikhs across Canada, especially in New Westminster, BC, where he was executed Thurs Mar 13/14 Jews and Anti-Semitism in the Interwar Period – Guest Lecture, Dr. Tulchinsky • WWI Aftermath o Rhetoric- war had been won, Canada will be home fit for heroes  Aftermath was bitter time, thousands returned home injured • Government also had to pay war debt o Bitterness expressed in different ways: attitude towards immigrants and others believed not to have taken full responsibility during the war  1000s interned as enemy aliens in camps in the Canadian north • Racism o Argument that anti-Semitism is in the DNA of Christian civilization o Emergence of racial anti-Semitism in late 19 century  Stems from belief that there was a hierarchy of races, a kind of science • Anglo-Saxons and Nordics, then middle Europeans, Asians, Blacks • Physical, intellectual, and moral differences were substantial th  Belief developed in early 20 century that the Jews were a people apart, below the hierarchy • Nazis put forth idea that Jews were not human, they were a disease o Henry Ford, among others, attracted to racial ideas  Put out anti-Semitic propaganda in late 1910s and early 20s • Dearborn Independent, globally-published anti-Semitic newspaper • Translated into German, influenced Hitler o Roman Catholic Priest in Michigan, every week had anti-Semitic program on Sunday afternoons, listened to by millions o Racism not only towards Jews, also anti –Asian, -Ukrainian, -Irish Roman Catholic • Political Instability o By 1917, question of conscription a serious political issue  Some were favourable, others were not, especially in the Quebecois  Election, 1917, Liberal party split; rise of Progressives who wanted nothing to do with Liberals of Conservatives, oriented to interests of the West o Rise of the Communist Party of Canada, est. 1921  Oriented to and took directives from Moscow o Cooperative Commonwealth Federation, middle of the road socialist party, est. 1932 o Reconstructionist Party, business community grievances, est. 1935 o In this context, deterioration of the national interest that had been prominent with WWI (expansion, land acquisition, railways, industry)  Canadians faced with too many choices • Labour Unrest o Strong tradition of strong labour organizations back to mid-19 century o New industri
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