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HIST 245 Before Midterm

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HIST 245
Ana Siljak

HIST 245Medieval Muscovite and Imperial Russia Professor Anna SiljakTues Sept 913 IntroductionImperial Russia16891917 o Beginning with Peter the Great and ending with the last Tsar Peter IITheme Westernization o Was imperial Russia a European countryEmphasis Cultural and intellectual history Background o EnvironmentVery coldmajor portions are frozen most of the year97 of the population is agricultural peasantsPlanting crops is a difficult activity w cold weather o Short season only one chance per year o Only small portion is fertileLow crop yields Subsistence agriculturebarely enough to eat o Cycles of faminesFarm animals lived in the home o Would freeze otherwiseo Livestock could not graze in winterHad to share food with animalsAgriculture seen as key to modern prosperity Lack of good agriculture did not allow Russia to modernize Very flatexpansion is relatively easy Huge territory but sparsely populatedo 15 million people at beginning of time period500000 in cities rest in countrysideo Difficult to keep control of vast areaWinter is easiest time to travel use sleds o Roads impassable in spring and fallTo keep country together tried western forms of bureaucratic reform o Must expend power into the peripheryo PeasantsLive in communesPeasant commune is practicalDifficult climate uncertainty of harvest o Freehold family farm is impossible Too many resources are needed Land is divided into strips and each family given a certain number of strips based on number of family members repartitioned every few yearsBecomes unique concept in Russian history o Either hindrance to modernity or is what makes Russia ahead of its timeSerfdomowned by landlordsLive slaves owned by masters for lifeAbolition influences by western movementso Autocracy and AristocracyTsars and TsarinasSole allpowerful rulers of RussiaGodgiven duty to rule over his people o Most important duty of the subject is to create harmony between Tsar and his peopleSubjects are entirely dependent upon the TsarHumble slavesThe family is extremely importantEspecially in upper social ranks o Best thing is to get a family member married to the TsarPower and rank reflected in position at court seatingRuling families change oftenTsars create bureaucracy legal systems to limit the power of the familyWesternization about challenging the power of the family Autocracy until 1917o OrthodoxyRussian religion as powerful force shaping culture Orthodox Christianity o Designated after Great Schism 1054 o Many theological differencesRefusal of the Orthodox to recognize the pope in RomeDivided into churches with patriarchs at the head o Develops independently from the westLargely unaffected by the Renaissance Reformation and Enlightenment o Obstacle to westernizationVisual imagery is Tsars orthodoxy Tradition vs modernization o Westernization Transformation from barbarous nation to St Petersburg western capital Did it become European or just look EuropeanThurs Sept 1213 Peter the Great Childhood and Youth r16821725 Peter the Controversial Figure o Began Russias modernization process Put Russia on the western calendar Introduced parties mixedcompany gatherings o Seen as destroying everything unique national about Russia o Ultimate ruler condemned as tyrantSeen as antichrist by some groupsChildhood and Youth o Genealogy Tsar Alexis 13 children by first wife Maria MiloslavskiiMaria died took second wife Natalia Naryshkin o Peter was first son of second wife born 1672 o Dynastic ConflictsFamily was everything Russia ruled by small number of elite familiesRank is carefully determined in hierarchyFamily status and position within the family To clarify ranks series of genealogical tables to keep track of all the men within the families Could move up and down in statusBest way to move up was to marry up o Daughters were the currency by which a family could move up o Best was to have a daughter marry the TsarWhen Maria died Miloslavskii family lost powerNaryshkins took overTsar Alexis diesNow two families in contention for the next in line hated each otherNext Tsar either to be Theodore first Miloslavskii son r 167682 or Peter o Theodore wins is older o Peter and Natalia fade not mistreatedTheodore dies 1682Ivan Miloslavskii r168296 not fit to take throne many wanted 10year old Peter1682 revolt of musketeers against NaryshkinsTold were going to curb their powerMany Naryshkin supporters thrown from windows into waiting pikes o Peter witnessed violence CompromisePeter and Ivan as corulers of Russia o Peter was Tsar in name only Ivans sister Sophia r168289 becomes regent in his brothers namePeter and Naryshkins decide to leave the Kremlin voluntary exile o A Busy YouthLives just outside Moscow for 7 yearsRejects traditional educationEmbarks on 2 projects o Game of soldiersPlayed soldiers very seriouslyMade his friends build stables offices perform drills wear uniforms Asked Kremlin for weapons was given Built and attacked a fortress
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