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HIST 245 After Midterm

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HIST 245
Ana Siljak

HIST 245Imperial Russia II Professor Ana SiljakThurs Oct 17 2013The Great ReformsIntroduction o Major dividing line at 1861 between periods of Imperial RussiaEmancipation of the serfs and other fundamental reforms The Crimean War 18531856 o Under Nicholas I committed to reactionary principles under Holy AllianceInstead of following predecessors and looking to Ottoman Empire would defend the Ottoman Empire from revolution within When Egypt rose up in 1832 sent troops to help crush revoltExpects Empire will help Russia but Ottomans increasingly weakened internally and known as the sick man of Europe o No one European power allowed to grab too much territory see Russians as getting too involved with Ottomanso France Britain and Austria worried by Russias continued involvement with Ottomans o 1848 Europe in revolt France elects new leader Louis NapoleonWants to take up his uncles mantle decides to strike at RussiaIn Holy Lands Orthodox Christians were in charge o Napoleon asks Ottomans to give them to the Catholics Ottomans agree play powers against each other 1852Humiliating blow to Nicholas to supported Ottomans o Does not want to go to war spends 1 year in negotiationsFailed declares war in 1853 might as well take over Ottoman territorieso War drags on inconclusively into 1854 until another blowFrance declares war against Russia expected but unexpectedly gets Britain and Austria to join them Demand that Russia accept the Four Points Treaty o Point 3 the sticking point Russia must get rid of its Black Sea fleet so Nicholas refusesInvade Crimean peninsulao Disaster for everyone When French and British troops land and siege city of Sevastopol 18545 humiliation as an invasion of Russia Alexander II and Reform o Nicholas son a reformer follows pattern of reactionaryreformerreactionary o A Plodding ReformerSome say he was the least intelligent of Russias rulers disliked being talked atDisappointment to his father no one predicted his transformationso Crisis and Glasnost Found himself in the crisis of the British and French siege of Sevastopol Lost 100000 men time for Russia to cut their losseso Vast majority from disease on both sides turning point on how people viewed war and diseaseAdvent of war photography role of modern technology and brutalityPublic opinion in Russia becomes an important factor for the first time o Beginning to ask themselves why was it that Russia was so humiliated in the War On their own soil by former allies o The answer was almost universal Because Russia was in domestic disorderAlexander had inherited foreign and domestic crises Right after took power told by many people that Russia could not go on as it was had to changeo Everyone was too afraid to suggest reform to a reactionary Decided to proceed cautiously o Before accepting any reform a new policy of openness which he called Glasnost Word used by bureaucrats that believed that if Russia spoke about issues could be better resolvedo 1856 amnesties surviving Decembrists Poles Petroshevskys other dissidentso 1857 need to lessen censorship but not get rid of it entirelyEveryone took this freedom and ran with it Private discussion now could go out into the open o Main concern on everyones mind was serfdomFirst debate that emerged a collective moment for all Russians to pressure regime to end bonded labour Even Slavophiles who said that peasants had to speak and even Tsars were obliged to listen The Great Reforms o Emancipation 1861Alexander proceeded very cautiouslyStarts with speech to nobles said abolition would not come immediately but that the existing system cannot continue o Must begin abolishing from above or will come from below 1856 created secret committee containing none of the existing bureaucrats1857 said better to abandon the problem all were noblesShould peasants be given land after But that is noble land But by 1858 are fully committed to immediate full emancipation with land o What happened Nobility not united in holding onto serfsNorth and west where on obrok wanted to formally get rid of their serfs and be compensated for lost land Journals began to publish articles advocating emancipationAlexaner Herzen The Bell published in exile on the state of the reform process with insider knowledge urged full emancipation with land o Various members of the regime often caught reading it leaked secretsFeb 19 1861 Alexander signs emancipation manifestoVery long 361 pagesGovernment fears unrest after declaredo But everything passed without issue document was so complicated that few understood it Serfs were now entirely free of their bondage to another person o Freely marry buy and sell property engage in trade however they wished o Became full subjects of the tsar on par with everyone else For 2 years 18613 things were to remain as they were propertywise o Property stayed in hand of owners with regular paymentso Would get together and decide how much each would getIf peasant had money could buy personal gardensBut farmland had to be carefully dividedo Once price of land determined government would step inPeasants could not afford so given 80 loan of the entire value of the propertyLoan to be repaid over the course of 49 years at 6 interest If wished peasants could become individual farmers o If not could remain in peasant communes and work together to raise the funds to pay the landlord and the loan Some dissatisfaction that land had not been given to them properlyThe true emancipation had not yet happened Nobility had no major resistance Now have to integrate 1000s of new subjects into societyo The Reform of Local Government 1864Serfdom had been pillar of local government now needed something elseForm of quasidemocratic local government the ZemstvoSubdistrict district and provincial levelsElected representatives on class lines Meet once a year have permanent governing boards that manage local affairs including education medicine public works and maintenance Education now became very important so zemstvo needed to created network of free rural Primary education Meant to teach reading writing arithmetic religionVoluntary but open to everyone o Initially few attended but it was the first acknowledgement that universal education was a good thingo The Reform of the Courts 1864Educated legal scholars brought together and asked to come up with a new legal system for Russia along western lines
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