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HIST 255 Lecture Notes before Midterm

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HIST 255
Anthony Francis D' Elia

HIST 255 Renaissance and Reformation Wed Jan 9/13 Introduction and the New Economy  The Idea of the Renaissance o Conviction of artists and intellectuals  1300-1600 o “The Dark Ages”  Saw birth of Christ as turning point  Ended dark ages of pagan antiquity  History begins with Christ’s birth  Petrarch  14 , saw peak of civilization in classical antiquity o Saw Cicero’s age (1 c) as the beginning  Coined the term “the dark ages” for the middle ages o Condemned bad Latin  Started the renaissance o Recognized his time as different o Sought to revive classics o Search for ancient texts  Augustine  Classically trained, applied pagan to Christian  Admired by Petrarch  “Humanists”  Those who sought to revive civilizations of antiquity  Brought rebirth of classical style and culture o Art  Renaissance most evident in art  Matteo Palmieri  Giorgia Vathri  16 c art historian  Said Giotto started renaissance  Giotto  Rethored life to paintings  14 c.  Masaccio  15 c  Applied perspective to painting  Started move to naturalism o Northern reformation  Erasmus  Luther  Calvin  Wanted to purify religion  End corruption of Church  Return to apostolic age of Christianity  Sacred scriptures o French Enlightenment  Voltaire th  18 c.  Renaissance ended dark ages o Nineteenth c. scholars  Jules Michelet, Georg Voigt, Jacob Burckhardt  Following Hegel, wanted to capture “zeitgeist” o The spirit of the age  Burckhardt wrote The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860) o Renaissance was consciously created by man  The key to the renaissance was the individual o Led to breakdown of morality and questioning religion o One of the best books on the subject o Reactions to Burckhardt and the “Renaissance”  Charles Homer Haskins, The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century (1927)  Italian Renaissance irrelevant compared to medieval France  Johan Huizinga, Waning of the Middle Ages (1919)  Italian Renaissance was period of decay o Medieval chivalric culture was falling apart  Medievalists disliked Burckhardt’s ideas o Social History  Annales School: Marc Bloch, Lucien Febvre, 1929  Beginning of social history  Rejected narrative history in favour of economic and social structures o Total history, study of all human activites  Studies ordinary people rather than the great individuals  Total history and the “longue duree”  Renaissance not huge change, peasants changed little o Women  Joan Kelly-Gadol: “Did women have a Renaissance?” (1977)  Margaret King  Strict patriarchal society, but women developed a greater sense of selves  Spiritual achievement o Pagan or Christian Renaissance?  Revival of paganism  From “pagus” meaning “village”, or simple naïve superstitious belief  Ancient elite paganism o Philosophy, sophisticated astrology, beliefs of Plato, Cicero, etc.  Renaissance seen as pagan and corrupt  Until 1570, with Martin Luther brought about the reformation o Christian renaissance  Most major players were Christian  Most art is of devotional Christian subjects  Renaissance society relied on religion th 11-12 c. Italy: Cities and Money  Economic Revolution and Saint Francis  Commercial Revolution o Greater political stability  Merchant market flourished o Money  Discovery of rich silver mines in Germany  Economy used to be based on farming, barter and exchange  Greater circulation of money now meant that labour could be monitored  Profit economy  Moved to the cities o 1150-1300, population in Italian cities tripled o New urban society led to new occupations and specializations  Transformed traditional order of medieval society  Tertiary workers  Those who worked with their minds  Bankers, merchants, professors, lawyers, doctors  Created tension in society o Aristocrats and church felt alienated and betrayed  Money seen as having devil-like powers  Replaced pride as the root of evil  Merchants could never please god  Selling skills for money was against church  Cities used to be seen as evil  Christians should flee temptations and distractions of cities o Gap in values of religion and people o New urban centres and culture  New religious ideas – Saint Francis of thsisi o Born near Provence, France, in 12 c. o Fascination with chivalric romances, only available in French  He was called Francesco, “Frenchman” o Taken prisoner during war with neighbouring Perugia  After prisoner for 1 year, ill, questioned o After drinking party, Francis transformed secular values of chivalry into religious devotion  Became knight of lady Poverty o Had been revolted by lepers, but after his conversion changed completely o In Assisi, Francis’ parents worried  Francis, a rich man, wore rags and begged for food  Refused to stop, father imprisoned him o Mother released  Francis stole his father’s precious cloth and sold it to the poor  In front of the Church, Francis stripped and renounced family ties o While praying in San Damiano, crucifix told Francis to repair the Church o Made a tunic in the shape of the cross out of rough and painful material  Used a cord with 3 knots o Penance of Francis  Tried to follow Christ  Worried about pride in his extremes  Preached peace and love more radically than anyone before  Took the gospel literally  Contrary to mercantile society  Despised money, followers not allowed to touch money o Preaching to the birds and the Wolf of Gubbio  Canticle of Brother Sun  Praised god for brother sun, sister moon, earth  Seen as first poem in Italian  Saw flock of birds, began to preach to them  When finished, birds nodded heads in agreement  Ravenous wolf in Gubbio, eating children  Francis went to wolf’s cave, made an agreement with the wolf  Also spoke to fields, stones o Soon had many followers, Church had to deal with him  Francis did not want to become monk, bound to a parish  Wanted to establish new rules for brothers in secular/lay world  Went to Rome to ask the Pope o Pope Innocent III disgusted by Francis, told him to preach to pigs in the mud, did not belong with men o Church was fighting war against heresy  Cathars (purity)  World was evil, province of the devil, only spirit good o Denied Christ’s role in incarnation and creation  Waldensians (poverty)  Radical poverty  Did not believe in Church property  Francis said the world was good, had absolute obedience to the pope  Admired poverty, but obedient to the pope (answered Waldensian problem)  Pope Innocent III found a way to adapt Church to profit economy through Francis o With merchants, Francis provided outlet for guilt  Donation to Church could allow hope for salvation without changing their ways  Penance seen as business deals between man and god  Franciscans spoke in same language as merchants o Merchants’ wealth could be used for good  Profit condemned, but allowed profit used to support families, church, poor o Merchants and bankers no longer automatically condemned to hell o Franciscans stayed in cities, allowed lay participation in religion  Essential in renaissance  Popularized religion and revolutionized Christianity Fri Jan 11/13 Dante and Florence  Dante Alighieri (1265-1321)  Brief history of Florence and Italian Communes o 962, Holy Roman Emperor, Otto I, claims rule over northern Italy o 11 -12 century, commercial revolution leads to independent communes  Florentine History o 1190, guild republicanism becomes common political system  Guilds had complete monopoly over what they represented  Had to belong to the guild to be employed in that profession  20 guilds form government  Highly mistrustful, everyone belonged to factions o 1193, Podestà established  New office to deal with corruption  Came from another city, stayed for 2-3 months, completely separate th  Uncorrupted for his term, judged objectively o 13 century, factional wars between:  Ghibellines (cities that supported German Holy Roman Empire)  Nobles tended to be Ghibellines  Guelf (cities that supported Pope)  Merchants tended to be Guelfs  Papacy resisted the emperors o 1266, Battle of Campaldino  Guelfs beat and expel Ghibellines o 1282-1292, political reforms  Main council is replaced with Priorate  7 men, 6 from 21 guilds and a Standard Bearer of Justice (Gonfaloniere)  Each served for 2 months o 1293, Ordinances of Justice  Magnates (nobles) could not hold political office  Created merchant government  Cut down all the towers, made it illegal for a private citizen to build towers  Used by nobles as a show of power  Many nobles returned to Florence and changed their status, or returned and exerted pressure  Created split between Blacks (former nobles) and Whites (middle class) o 1300, Whites exile Blacks  Dante, White, serves as Prior o 1301, Blacks return with help of Pope Boniface VIII and French king Charles o 1302, Dante exiled for barratry (graft, financial corruption)  Never returns  Dante’s exile in Divine Comedy themes o Corrupt church – Dante vs. bad popes (Boniface VIII) and Simonists (clerics who buy holy office)  Need for church reform  Put Boniface in 8 circle of hell, with the simonists  Simon Magus – magician who tried to buy spiritual power from St Peter o Dante against Florence  Filled hell with Florentines  Only hope was Emperor Henry of Luxembourg  Went to Italy in 1310, hope he would unite Italy and end civic discord  Wrote a treatise on monarchy  The Divine Comedy as compendium of Christian religious beliefs about sin, redemption, and the hereafter (Inferno finished in 1314) o What did religion mean to Dante’s contemporaries?  Street Madonnas  Statues on practically every street corner  Provided comfort and protection, performed miracles, protected against disease and crime, discouraged blasphemy  Patron saints  Extends sacredness of the church into the neighbourhood  Holy images reminded people to pray o Obligation to continue relationship with dead relatives  Graves were near commercial areas, churches  Depended on doctrine of purgatory  13 century, fully articulated  Blasphemy  Public offense, could bring wrath of god on an entire city  Punishments ranged from fines to flogging to rowing on galley ships  Neighbourhood  Religion essential part of people’s lives  Community experience, used by government to foster civic harmony o Doctrine of purgatory  Dante wrote most extensively on purgatory  Led to industry in religious piety  Doctrine of Penance  Contrition, confession, and satisfaction for one’s sins o Most common satisfaction was pilgrimage or crusade  Friend or relative could do it on your behalf  Led to practice of paying others for satisfaction  Treasure of the Church  Surplus of good works, as saints were free of sin but did good works anyways  Popes controlled the surplus, so could pay out indulgences o Easily corrupted  Ghosts and prayers for those in purgatory  Can speed up time spent in purgatory o Could pay for masses to be said for relative o Could buy indulgences  Run on doctrine of penance (above)  Purgatory  Sinners cleansed themselves so they could enter heaven  Prayers of the living affect souls in purgatory o Can speed them through o In Dante’s Purgatory, souls ask Dante to ask their relatives to pray for them  Notion of time is different in each book  No time in Hell, despair  In Purgatory, cleanse themselves by climbing a mountain o Becomes easier as they climb, rush to paradise  Feel hope o Explains benign ghosts, relatives asking for prayer o Calendar divided into religious holidays  Christmas, Lent, Easter, Saint’s feast days (“Onomastico”= your name saint’s feast day)  Every day was a feast day of a patron saint, everyone had a patron saint o Cities had patron saints – Florence (John the Baptist), Venice (Saint Mark) o Seven sacraments  Baptism – expels evil of original sin, allowed increase of family and alliances through godparents  Sometimes nobles chose 2 random peasants as godparents, encouraging child to be kinder to the poor  Confession – required at least once a year during lent, goal was reconciliation with god and the Christian community  Communion – Eucharist, usually only taken once per year by the laity  Provided salvation, fostered community  Confirmation  Marriage – ceremony separate from church until later in renaissance, mainly a political opportunity  Became involved because of practice of intermarriage to keep property in the family, familiarity o Passed laws against incest, forces exogamy (marriage outside)  Clandestine marriages became an issue, where men would deny marriage had occurred to marry to political advantage  Holy Orders  Extreme unction  All the important stages of life, allowed one to enter the Christian community  Fostered community o Seven deadly sins  Sins of the Spirit – pride, envy, anger, avarice  Considered more serious than sins of the body o Came from need for welfare of the community  Pride seen as worst, must be humble o Raising oneself above the community o Prideful made to walk with stones on their back  Envy called the vice of peasants o Jealousy of other’s prosperity, and taking pleasure in other’s failure o Rests on false doctrine of limited good  Limited good fortune in the world, another person’s good fortune takes away good from others  Anger is outward expression of envy, hatred that led to acts of malice o Only answer was love of one’s enemy  Sins of the Flesh – gluttony, sloth, lust  Trivial compared to sins of the spirit  Gluttony and sloth mainly affected the individual, not the community  Lust could affect community, but treated as theft o Rapists made to marry their victim or provide a large dowry  In Dante’s Hell o Upper hell and lower hell o Canto 28: “Contrapasso”  Punishment fits the crime o Dante’s conversion from earthly to spiritual things  Saint Augustine, The Confessions (397)  Inferno as an autobiography o Canto 5: story of Paolo and Francesca  Sexual sins, little importance, lust not considered excessively serious  Dolce stil nuovo – Italian style of love poetry  Dante writes love poetry until 1290 when Beatrice Portinari dies  Wrote philosophy afterwards o Canto 15: Brunetto Latini  Convivio (1304-1308)  Dante’s philosophical poems o Canto 26, Ulysses o Canto 34, Brutus, Cassius, Judas o Central theme was conversion  Pride to humility  Dante’s conversion was slow, as he was still attached to worldly possessions  Purgatory o Each soul experiences virtue opposite their sin  When purged of the sin, reaches paradise  Paradise o The soul’s return, inexplicable  Structure shows society in Italy o Society based on patronage and community solidarity, rife with mistrust o Betrayal of one’s benefactor was the worst sin  Judas, Brutus and Cassius in the lowest level of hell Wed Jan 16/13 Boccaccio and the Plague  Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375) o Illegitimate son, legally recognized, provided with banking education o Moved to Naples  Under King Robert of Anjou  Apprenticed to the Florentine banking firm, the Bardi  Thriving cultural centre where scholars flocked  Boccaccio became more interested in writing poetry  Boccaccio allowed to abandon commerce in favour of law  He struggled and complained, he was wasting his time  Repulsed with money-making  After his father left Naples in 1332, could focus on humanistic studies o Decameron (VIII.7) – the hardships of the scholar’s life  Protagonist goes to Paris with the intent of learning the reasons and causes of things o Caccia di Diana (1334) – Boccaccio’s first work of fiction, hunting poem o Decameron (V.1) – Cymon and the power of beauty and love to transform  Common themes in his works and in French and Italian love poetry  High court culture transferred to merchant culture in Italy o Created hybrid forms of literary genres o Il Filocolo (1338) – Boccaccio’s chivalric romance in prose Italian  “The first great example of the modern European novel”  His final work in Naples, combination of many genres o Leaves Naples for Florence  The Black Death (1348 and 1349) th o 13th, life expectancy: 35-40 years o 14 c, below 20 o 1348 was the worst outbreak o Plague is primarily a disease of small animals  Humans are accidental victims of infected rats  When they died, fleas passed the virus to humans  Incubation period of 2-8 days, followed by agonizing pain, swellings, aversion to light  Few survived o Originated in Central Asia and followed Silk Road  Carried to port cities of Pisa, Genoa and Venice o Why were they so vulnerable?  Malfusion explanation  Human population tended to expand beyond food supply o Corrected with famine, disease, war o 1300, Tuscany had population of 2 million people o Plague followed 2 years of famine  1/5 could afford bread, the rest had to “graze” like cattle o Economic effects  Professions hurt – grave diggers, physicians, priests  Deterioration of skilled traditions as experts died o Dangerous professions, constantly in contact with the sick  Grave digging became a profession, paid for their services  Women began to work as doctors  Not enough priests to perform last rites  Depletion of professions  Women appear in courts  Membership in guilds no longer a requirement to work  Not enough workers to be choosy  Depopulation liberated much land, wiped out social distinctions o Advanced in technology  Smaller workforce led to labour-saving technologies  The cost of labour increased when the number of workers decreased  Printing  1453, Johann Gutenberg o Invention of printing on basis of movable metal type  Ships and insurance  Bigger ships, smaller crews that could remain at sea for longer periods  Maritime insurance introduced  Gunpowder – firearms  Manpower shortages meant that soldiers demanded higher wages o With firearms, one man can do more damage o Social and cultural effects of the plague  Funerals  New tension between living and dead o Disrupted funerary customs  Before, priest would go the dead or the dying and hear confession, give communion, administer supreme unction o Corpse taken to burial by procession, funeral mass  During plague, bodies abandoned or hastily buried o Numbers made it impossible to bury everyone  Social divisions: healthy and sick  Sick were seen as enemies, received little or no compassion o Created horror in death  Death: Danse macabre, orgies, parties  People repulsed by death  Led to extreme partying o Temporary victory over death  Graveyards became places for orgies  Jews attacked  Largest cultural minority, largely allowed to practice religion  1348, rumour that Jews had poisoned Christian wells and started the plague o Pope Clement said that Jews were dying too, how could they have started it?  Violence ensued anyways  When Strausburg government tried to protect Jews, overthrown  New religious movements: Flagellants  Public penance, whipping themselves  1399, another plague hit o Penitents dressed in white marched through Italy  Replaced clergy as intermediary between Heaven and Earth o Not enough priests  Universities: fewer students but new colleges to replace skilled labour  5 colleges died out  Cambridge acquired 4 new colleges  New universities challenged old ones  Vernacular vs. Latin o Latin teachers died  Medicine rd  Galen (3 c. AD): Balancing the Four Humours o Dominant school of medicine o All illness was the result of an imbalance among humours  Had to correct the imbalance  Contagion – new idea o Foundation of modern pathological ideas o Realised there was something there, something from fleas  Four types of medical practitioners in medieval society o Physicians (university degree), surgeons (actively helping people), barbers (minor surgery and blood-letting), folk-wise women (mid-wives) o Plague challenged physicians’ ideas of Galen o Surgeons, more skilled in practical issues, got sick o Barbers and folk-doctors gained greater prominence  Status and labour of women  After 1348, golden age for women o Women employed as doctors, brewers, innkeepers  Male depopulation shattered gender divisions  Philosophy – Nominalism: William of Ockham vs. Thomas Aquinas (d. 1274)  Aquinas believed in rational order of the universe  Nominalism arose after the plague o Denied the ability of the human intellect to penetrate and understand the universe  Universe dominated by arbitrariness  Plague was unpredictable, unknowable, destructive  Religious belief: David Herlihy (medieval historian)  Before the plague, most were only superficially Christian o Most adhered to folk-paganism  Herlihy studied lists of names o Before the plague, very few people were named after saints  In Paris, only 10/6000 had any Christian association  In Florence, 1/5 are Christian  1350, in Florence, 4/5 are Christian o More Christian awareness after the plague  Parents start to name children after patron saints o Francis, Dominic  Plague saints appear  Bartholomew could alleviate skin pain as he was skinned alive  Lawrence, roasted alive, could alleviate pain  Sebastian, shot with 100 arrows, related with buboes  Anthony prayed to for curing fevers  Roche, first real plague saint o Cured buboes by touching them, succumbed to plague  Relics flooded the markets, paid for chapels and artwork  Served medicinal and magical religion against sudden onslaught  Wills survive  During and after the plague, desire 1000s of masses o Donate large sums of money for these masses o Shows greater devotion  Boccaccio o Lost friends and family to the plague, 1348 o The Decameron (1349-52)  100 tales told over 10 days by 7 girls and 3 boys  7 young women meet in Santa Maria Novella and plan to escape the plague and the moral corruption o Suggest they retreat to a villa  Filomena sees a problem, that they are all women and need the guidance of men  Each day had a king or queen with a chosen theme (or open theme)  Day 1: Queen Pampinea: Open  Day 2: Queen Filomena: Suffering but eventual happiness (Andreuccio)  Day 3: Queen Neifile: Loss and painful regaining of something  Day 4 Prologue: Boccaccio’s defense o King Filostrato: Unhappy love affairs  Day 5: Queen Fiammetta: Lovers who struggle but win in the end  Day 6: Queen Elissa: Clever remarks that save face  Day 7: King Dioneo: Wives who play tricks on husbands  Day 8: Queen Lauretta: Tricks played by women/men on men/women  Day 9: Queen Emilia: Open  Day 10: King Panfilo: Generosity (Griselda)  General themes  Love  Beffa (practical joke) – Calandrino the simpleton  Cleverness praised (Melchizedek, Chichibio, Madonna Filippa) o Had to be clever to survive  Deceit of priests and monks usually to cuckold husband o Adultery as a crime of women and priests o Stress of anti-clerical themes  Corrupt church o Attacks corrupt priests and superstition, but advocates natural religious devotion that acknowledges human weakness and win  Gaudium – joy, positive thinking vs. plague  Love sickness – Galeotto and chivalric romance o Galeotto as a reference to Lancelot and Gwenevere  Women – idleness and pain of unfulfilled desire o Boccaccio: positive or negative view of women?  Need men to guide them  But women constantly overpower men, have acute minds, have little shame  Says society is unequal  Sex is natural and good in moderation  Could be seen as proto-feminist, but are also fictional  Human nature and sex  Day IV – Prologue: Filippo Balducci and Women  After his wife died, Filippo tried to protect son from corruption of city o Lived on mountain, eventually son had to go into Florence to trade with his father o Son saw women, wanted one, could not be dissuaded  Day X: Griselda and Gualtieri (ideal woman)  Griselda endures decades of abuse to test her fidelity  Fidelity, obedience, endurance as most important o Il Corbaccio (1365) – “The Scrawny Raven”  Last work of fiction  Spirit from purgatory comes to burst the narrator’s bubble about his love of a widow  Women as deceptive, not truly beautiful  Misogyny the main theme o Stopped writing fiction, wrote anthologies, non-fiction o De mulieribus Claris (1361-1375) – very popular work on the biographies of famous women  Examples of noble, learned women up to the 14 century Fri Jan 18/13 Petrarch and the Papacy  Francesco Petrarch (1304-1374) o Born in Arezzo o At age 8, Petrarch’s father moved to Avignon, France  Seat of the papacy in the 14 c.  Medieval Papacy o Constantine the Great and Pope Sylvester  312 CE, Battle of Milvian Bridge  Constantine vs. Maxentius o Stunning victory after converting  313 CE, Edict of Milan  Religious tolerance  325 CE, Council of Nicaea  Established Christian doctrine and belief  Popes began to lay claim to secular powers  The Donation of Constantine  Gave control of Rome to pope Sylvester, upon Constantine’s death o Basis for pope’s ownership of Rome and papal states o Justification for expanding and controlling church lands  Lorenzo Valla (1405-1457) o Demonstrated that donation was a forgery from the 9 century o 452 CE, Pope Leo I, the Great, meets Attila the Hun  Attila threatens to sack Rome  Leo goes outside the walls, saints Peter and Paul appear and tell Attila not to  Leo probably bribed them o Charlemagne and Leo III  Lombards unseat the Pope  Pope calls upon Charlemagne for help  800 CE, Pope crowns Charlemagne the first Holy Roman Emperor o 11 c, Investiture Controversy  Pope Gregory VII and Emperor Henry IV  Who had the right to elect and install bishops  Pope excommunicated Henry, Henry does penitence and begs forgiveness o Pope Boniface VIII (1294-1304)  Boniface tried to stop Philip IV of France from collecting taxes from the clergy  Unam Sanctam (1302) – papal bull  Asserted unity of church and state and superiority of pope  Philip denounced Boniface as criminal, called for his deposition  Pope left Rome to prepare decree of excommunication  Army broke into Boniface’s castle o Insulted, slapped, abused Boniface  Died a few weeks later  Papacy in Avignon (1309-1377) o Next pope, Clement V, was French, moved to Avignon, France o Described as the “Babylonian captivity of the church” by Petrarch  Called “the whore of Babylon” o Culture more stimulating than in Italy o At his father’s insistence, Petrarch studied law  Disliked it, preferred Latin literature  When father burned his books, saved only Petrarch’s Virgil / Cicero o Traveled, eventually settling Arquà (near Padua)  Lived off patronages and donations  Gained a low place in the church so he could study  Put in place many ideas thought of as Renaissance  Letter writing, love  Petrarch’s Renaissance o 1341, crowned poet laureate on Campidoglio in Rome  On his way to Rome, stopped in Naples  King Robert the Wise wanted to crown him, but refused  By choosing Rome, pointed the way of the Renaissance  Glory of ancient Rome as opposed to that of medieval Paris o “All history is the history of Rome”  Africa: Latin epic poem about Scipio Africanus vs. Hannibal  Modeled on the Aeneid o Recovery of ancient classical texts  “Dark Ages” preserved many pagan texts  1333, Petrarch discovers Cicero’s Pro Archia oration in monastic library in Liege  1345, Petrarch finds Cicero’s Familiar Letters discovered in Verona  Cicero, Letters to Atticus  Petrarch’s Letter to Cicero in Hades  Mark of the Renaissance o Scholars conversed with ancient authors o Made the past present  Changed the image of Cicero from a stoic philosopher to a man intensely involved in the politics of his day  Became the model for active citizenship  Petrarch chastised Cicero for his involvement of politics  Coluccio Salutatth Leonardo Bruni  Early 15 c Florentine humanists  Rejoiced in Cicero’s political activities o Petrarch’s sense of his own alienation  Hated bad Latin and pedantry of Scholastics  Preferred to interact with the authors directly o Historical distance  Past was not what medievalists thought  Very different from modern day  To truly understand the past, have to have historical distance o Initiated the science of textual criticism  Livy (59BC – 17AD)  Only 3 books survive  Petrarch collected all he could and compared them o Tried to find the original meaning of the texts o Not antiquarian but utilitarian interest in antiquity  Imitated Latin style of Cicero to convey his own thoughts  Applied the ideas found in ancient literature to their own societies o Cola di Rienzo and the Roman Revolution, 1347 and 1354  Son of a tavern keeper, emerged to resurrect the ancient republic  Gave stirring speeches, had to rekindle ancient virtue o Rome was the head of the world, would unite Italy  Each Roman neighbourhood controlled by powerful barons  1347, Cola elected as the Tribune of the People  Had control of security  Fought the corrupt barons, dream of reviving ancient Rome seemed possible  Petrarch had met Cola in Avignon  Petrarch wrote to Cola, called him the new Brutus, would bring back Roman Republic  But Cola became a tyrant and was kicked out of office  Rome fell into chaos  Cola returned to power in 1354 o Showed signs of mental illness  Brutal suppression of barons shocked  Dressed as an emperor, behaviour tyrannical o Angry mob surrounded government at the Tabularium palace on the Capitoline Hill  Tried to control the mob with a speech, rocks thrown at him o Mob set fire to the palace  Cola could fight and die, or escape and try to return  Took off his armour, dressed as a peasant, and snuck out a back door  Almost escaped, but couldn’t resist the temptation to join the mob o Recognized by the mob because of his golden bracelets  Torn apart by the mob  Cola seen as revolutionary, popular in 19 c.  Benito Mussolini used as example o Charles IV of Prague, crowned Holy Roman Emperor, 1355  Seen as only hope for Italian unification  “It is not important where you are born, only for what purpose”  Charles’ purpose was to bring peace to Rome  Did not unite Italy, but withdrew to the north and never returned o Petrarch’s idea of political ideal  Roman, Italian, Imperial o New kind of love poetry  Il Canzoniere – Petrarch and Laura  Collection of love poetry written in Italian  Divided into two sections o Before and after Laura’s death  Physical woman vs. spiritual ideal (like Dante)  Praises Laura’s beauty, but the focus is always on himself  Oxymoron, contradiction, as the mark of the Petrarchan sonnet  Conveys the power and violence of love  Self-awareness and introspection became themes of the Renaissance o Constructing the self  Letter to Posterity  Demonstrates obsession with constructing how he would be perceived in the future  Similar to Saint Augustine’s Confessions (418CE)  Ascent of Mont Ventoux, 1336  Petrarch climbed with his monk brother to the top, wrote a letter about his climb o Petrarch takes the easier path, unlike with brother, who took the more difficult path  Forced to return to the bottom, happened 3 times  Climbing the mountain like cleansing the soul  His motive was to see off the top o Other who climbed mountains had done so in other manners  Climbed for meteorological observations  Forerunner of modern tourism o At the top, takes in the whole view, seeing Italy  Petrarch confesses to himself  Torn between inner life and world about him  Brought Augustine’s Confessions, read biblical passage that expresses his own ideas  The Secret (1343)  Imaginary conversation with Saint Augustine o Do I save my soul or seek fame?  Petrarch in a state of restlessness  On Learned Ignorance  “What would it profit me to know the nature of animals, birds, fish, and snakes; and to ignore or despise the nature of men, the end for which we are born, whence we come, and where we go.”  Humanists focused on man, the human condition, moreover than God  Famous when he died o Had visited Emperor, King of Paris, Pope  Refused invitations to their courts to maintain scholarly freedom  Typifies individualism and modern outlook of the Renaissance o But was a self-constructed portrait  Modern outlook formed from intimate relationship with classical antiquity Wed Jan 23/13 Humanism  Humanism o First used by German renaissance scholars, modern word o Studied antiquity, Latin and Greek languages and literature  Humanist (umanista) o Employed in many fields  Professional practitioner and teacher of the Studia humanitatis o Humanities comes from humanitatis o Proper to mankind  Cicero (106-43 BCE) o Humanitas = Paideia  Education, culture  Origins o Practical skill of letter writing and speech giving o Language problems  Dialects for each region  Some mainly an accent, some completely different  Tried to establish Tuscan as the standard  Dante, Petrarch, Boccaccio  School children taught Tuscan Italian since 1870 reunification of Italy o Grammar and Empire: the virtues of the Latin language  So many dialects, Latin was universal and standardized o Ars dictaminis  Practical, medieval art of letter writing and speaking  All officials trained in dictaminis  Letters written and read out loud to officials in other cities o Led to a need for rhetorical skills and eloquence  Cicero, Caesar, Livy imitated  Greek o Reintroduction of ancient Greek into scholarship o 1397-1400, Manuel Chrysoloras from Byzantium teaches ancient Greek in Florence  Taught Greek to all the major humanists, had many students  Translated ancient Greek texts to Latin  Could read the original works  Byzantium held Greek culture until 1453, Fall of Constantinople to Turks o Leonardo Bruni  Latin translations of Greek literature  Plutarch, Xenophon, Demosthenes, Aristotle, Plato, etc. o Pier Paolo Vergio (1377-1445)  Student of Chrysoloras  Wrote On Good Manners (1402)  Revived Greek paideia for Italian nobles o Guarino of Verona (1374-1460)  Taught Greek in Ferrara and made translations into Latin  Called the time before Chrysoloras “the dark ages” o Marcilio Ficino (1433-1499)  Philosopher, translated all known dialogues of Plato into Latin (1484)  Some of the earliest texts printed  Too young to study under Chrysoloras  Civic Humanism o Applying humanism to politics o Political system of voting by black/white beans  People easily persuaded  Politicians turned to rhetoric o Supported arguments with examples from the ancient world o Chancellors of Florentine Republic  Coluccio Salutati (1331-1406)  Need republican liberty to thrive  Used classical styles to argue that Florence was superior to Rome o Torch of civilization passed from ancient Rome to renaissance Florence  Leonardo Bruni (1444)  Life of Petrarch (1436) o Petrarch as father of humanism  Panegyric of Florence (1404) o Florence as liberty and equality o Propaganda distributed throughout Italy nd o Modeled on Asistides’ Panegyric of Athens (2 c. CE)  History of the Florentine People o The first completely secular history written since ancient Rome  Poggio Bracciolini  Wrote an invective against Valla o Modeled on Cicero’s invectives  The Latin Language o Two Languages Theory of Latin in antiquity  Latin as artificial language  Dante, De vulgari eloquentia (1302-5)  On the Vulgar Tongue  Had been two languages in antiquity, vernacular and Latin o Vernacular was a form of Italian, spoken from birth o Latin as invented, an ideal language  Had to be learned in school  Petrarch and Bruni agreed  Lorenzo Valla, On the Elegances of the Latin Language (1440)  Latin as universal and eternal, a divine language o Connected divine nature of Latin language with the rationality and successes of the Latin language o One language Theory  Latin as natural language  Italian, French as corrupted forms of Latin  By 15 century, taken for granted  The only language of ancient Rome, Italian was corrupted  Gave hope for Italian  Hope that Italian could reach such perfection as Latin o Grammar written for Italian  But Renaissance Italians realized they would never be as fluent as ancient Romans who had grown up speaking only Latin  Flavio Biondo  Leon Battista Alberti  Francesco Filelfo  Silvia Rizzo  “Latin became a dead language only when it was realized that it had been a living language” o Dangers of classicism  How to be a purist in Latin?  Latin as static ideal language (only Cicero’s vocabulary) vs. dynamic with new vocabulary  Lorenzo Valla answered the problem by looking at the classical authors, who said that language was dynamic and must change based on custom and need th  Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian Wars (5 c. BCE)  Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory (95 CE)  Textual Criticism o Petrarch initiated the book hunting faze  Second generation of humanists succeeded in finding most of the classical authors had today o Gathered together and compared different copies of the same work to establish a “correct” version o Angelo Poliziano (1454-1494)  Ranked manuscripts based on their age and reliability  Looked at the language used  Investigated the historical contexts when the texts were written  Compared texts from the same period o Lorenzo Valla (1406-1457), On the Donation of Constantine (1440)  Foundation document for Pope’s temporal power and ownership of Roman Empire  Valla’s critique was politically motivated  Working for king of Aragon, who was at war over claim of part of Italy  Determined that many of the words and constructions used were not 4 th century Latin th  Corrupt, 8 century Latin uses  The author of the donation was ignorant of the customs, clothes, culture of the 4 century  Must be a forgery written in the 8 century  Public Libraries, Books, and Literary culture o Impulse to gather manuscripts, so need somewhere to put them  Public libraries founded in Venice, Rome, Florence  Preserved texts for the future  Led to new ways of reading o Numerous texts and topics available o Readers found new connections and meanings  Most libraries in the middle ages were monastic  Book traders maintained official texts to be copied and sold o Vatican Libraries  Pope Nicholas V  Largest library, compared to the library at Alexandria  Pope Sixtus IV  Continued to collect manuscripts  Platina, head librarian o Marciana Library, Venice  Cardinal Bessarion  Life goal to salvage all the manuscripts of Greek literature and culture  Donated all his books to Venice, forming the bulk of the Marciana Library o Ferrara, Este rulers  Too many books distract the mind  Limit to classical and canonical texts  Put large amounts of money into illustrating and illuminating manuscripts  Debates and literary contests in libraries  Needed a humanist to determine what should be in the library  When a book was presented to the library, presenter gave a speech about the book  Guarino of Verona  Humanist teacher in Ferrara o Libraries meant to demonstrate knowledge in active debate and writing o Most humanist writing in a dialogue form  Reflected conversation, had a more open approach  Could dramatize, persuade  Allowed humanists to experiment with different ideas  Can say that the ideas are those of the character’s, not the writer o E.g. Valla supported Epicurean ideas  Said the offensive opinions were not his, but those of Lorenzo in the dialogue o First lending libraries established  Can tell who borrowed what  Printing o Niccolo Niccoli, humanist and inventor of humanist script  Medieval, gothic script too complicated  Humanist script more efficient, clearer to read  Moveable type letters of the printing press based on humanist script o Johann Gutenberg (ca. 1450) perfects movable metal type in Mainz, Germany  Printed the bible in 1455  Created metal blocks for each letter that could be moved around to make words o 2 Chinesethnventions led to the printing revolution  8 c. Chinese invent xylography (wood-block painting)  Limited to single characters  Gutenberg used metal, not wood th  12 c. Chinese invent paper o Manuscripts were written on either parchment (sheepskin) or vellum (calfskin)  Extremely expensive to write large books like bibles on parchment or vellum o When it was first introduced, many scholars disliked the mass-produced books  Federico da Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino  Refused to allow any printed books in his library o Huge demands for books among those who could not afford manuscripts  By 1500, over 6 million books were produced from presses throughout Europe o Most dramatic effect was higher literacy rates  More people had access to the printed word than ever before o Aldus Manutius, Venetian printer  Gathered all the scholars of the day to create perfect editions  “Aldine” editions considered some of the best  Eloquence Ideal o Common humanist conviction that knowledge should serve practical ends  Rhetoric, persuasion, and eloquent discussion are the most effective ways to portray the truth  Style and rhetoric as imperative o Form as a part of content o Rhetoric meant to inform and to move  Orator should combine learning, experience, and character with an ability to persuade  Explain virtue and make the listeners want virtue o Cicero, Pro Archia poeta, VI. 13-14  Celebrates letters, defends the poet Archias o Better to will the good than know the truth o Orpheus: music-rhetoric as magic  Calms wild beasts with his song  Spoken word as magic  Humanism o Revival and love of classical antiquity o Until WWI, Western Europe followed education of Italian Humanists  Virtue could be learned from classical texts Fri Jan 25/13 Women in the Renaissance  Motherhood o Duty of a woman was to have children  Lower class women will have a child every 24-30 months  Wealthy women had even more  Needed to produce an heir to maintain family wealth and property  Better-off hired a wet nurse to allow more children th  Early 15 century, one woman had 26 children o Pregnant women received great honour o Isotta Nogarola  Of the equal or unequal sin of Adam and Eve (1453)  Male opponent said Eve had received additional punishment o Woman had to suffer the pains of childbirth o Alessandra Strozza  8 children over 10 years  Florentine widow, wrote letters  Of 5 sons, only 2 survived to adulthood o Margery Kempe, English mystic  6 month long post-partum depression o Gregorio Dati, Florentine merchant  Noted the deaths of his first 3 wives in childbirth o High rate of mortality in mothers o Only 20-50 percent of children survived  Plague, flu, starvation, tuberculosis o Breast Feeding  First 18-24 months  Parents worried about letting children drink animal milk  Francesco Barbaro, On Wifely Duties (1402)  Women given everything needed for motherhood  Wet nurse  Upper class women often refused to breastfeed o Desire for higher fertility, or aesthetic reasons o Physical inconveniences of nursing  Paid wet nurses to take care of children o Condemned by church and physicians  Breast milk transmitted character  Babies weaned off with wine or beer  More nutritious and sanitary than water supplies o Infanticide  Infants in care of poor wet nurses had a greater chance of dying  Malnutrition, poverty, neglect  When children unwanted, wet nurses paid to kill them “accidentally”  “Overlaying” o In winter, families slept together in the same bed  Babies smothered in the bed  Starvation, exposure, drugging  Always practiced  Normal and acceptable form of population control  Christianity tried to end it  Illegitimate births often abandoned  Punished by death  Women drowned or burned, men usually hanged  1580, beheadings for female infanticides o Contraception  In a culture so maternal that nuns replicated marriage and mother hood in daily activities  Church records  Number of contraceptive devices used by the laity o Abstinence, herbal tinctures, ointments, sponges, oral sex, mutual masturbation, sodomy, coitus interruptus  Saint Catherine of Siena th  20 child of her parents  Condemned contraception as the most frequent sin of married couples  12 as the average number of children, but those marrying in their 30s had just as many as younger women  Procreation vs. carnal pleasure  Morally good vs. morally bad  Not as clear cut a distinction, as another purpose of sex was to prevent adultery o So church ironically encouraged contraceptive mentality  Four common arguments for contraception  Avoid birthing pain  Escape poverty o Children are expensive  Preserve beauty, health  Prolong sexual intercourse before pregnancy  Best sources are confessional manuals  What women say, what priests respond  For priests, impoverishment was the only excuse for contraception o In secular law, poverty was the only excuse that could save a woman for execution for infanticide  Education o Mothers responsible for education of sons until age of 7, daughters until they marry  Mothers as models of virtue  Many embraced this duty  Alessandra Strozzi advised children on household affairs, treatment of slaves and real estate, informs them of political news in Florence o On-going guidance of adult sons was very common  Letters and journals make an entire genre o Had financial power in control over dowries  Marriage o Dowry th  15 century, marriage market was so competitive that dowries became very expensive  Families often could not afford to marry more than one daughter  Investments set aside for dowries  After marriage, maintained some control over her dowry  Often helped to fund own daughter’s marriage, so could help choose between suitors o Most marriages arranged by families  Political or economic advantages between families o Lorenzo de’Medici  Given a foreign (Roman) bride  Did not want to create tensions in Florence by favouring one family over another o For middle classes, wealth, status, beauty equally important o Most husbands and brides had some choice  Could approve or disapprove of certain matches  Sexes did not mingle outside of church  Women locked inside to protect chastity o Loss of virginity as financial matter  Ensured the legitimacy of the heir o Upper class women married between 12-14, middle and lower at 14-18  Mothers educated daughters in domestic duties required in husband’s house  Men needed economic independence, 25-30 was the norm  Became closer to a father-daughter relationship at first o Leon Battista Alberti, On the family  Provides guidelines for the new husbands to train their new wives o Church promoted affection and friendship in marriage o Agrippa von Nettesheim  No adultery or divorce if marriage based on love and companionship o Patriarchy  Silence and obedience praised in wives  Disobedient wives could be beaten o Brother Cherubino  The positive value of wife-beating  For the sake of her soul o “Rule of thumb”  Traditional rule of law that a woman could be beaten with a stick no greater than a thumb’s diameter o Widows  Age disparity led to large number of widows  Could remarry or remain single  Freed for the first time from a father or husband, many chose not to remarry  Inherited money and lands that she controlled  Remarriage common  Many died in childbirth, so men often had multiple wives o Step parents common, could cause friction with step-children o Nuns  Convent  Daughters sent to convents for 2 reasons o Not enough money for a dowry for a suitable marriage o Too much money, but did not want to divide wealth and money  Especially if there are thltiple daughters  15% of all women were in a convent in 15 century o Most from upper classes o Many were there unwillingly  Most girls were faithful to the vow of celibacy, even if forced  Life of a nun had some advantages over marriage or prostitution  Allowed education in reading and writing  Could work in hospitals, teach children, write to scholars and officials, translate works  Peaceful  Nuns were brides of Christ  St Catherine of Siena  Cared for poor and sick, yelled at Pope, produced 11 volumes of writing  Angela of Foligno  Erotic devotion o Bride of Christ, offered body to Jesus  Mortification of the flesh – asceticism  Extreme penance, to limit physical needs and purify o Could focus on the spiritual  Elena di Udine  Wore a hair shirt and crown of iron barbs o Tried to emulate life of Christ  Work o Household o Alberti  Gives the wife a tour of the household  Draws heavily on the work of Xenophon  Reflects the gender relations of ancient Greece more than 15 century Italy  Only possible among wealthy, but not a common image o Rulers’ wives and upper class women  Often kept company with artists and writers  Isabella d’Este, marchioness of Mantua, married to Federico Gonzaga  Collector of art and antiquities o Formed an international network of social ties o Promoted own public image  Assisted husband in ruling Mantua when he was away  Wrote over 12,000 letters  Recreated social standing through art collecting, patronage o Plague  Dramatic depopulation provided opportunities for women to learn trades and enter the workforce  Dominated professions in food, textiles, health  Men and women worked together in home-based businesses o Women travelled alone between cities to sell wares  Wives ran inns and breweries  Ca. 1500, population improved, and competition from the countryside closed many urban shops  Women lost work, forced back into the home  Women and the Renaissance o Art  Patrons (Isabella d’Este)  Female artists  Fewer opportunities to learn, so often inferior to male artists  Properzia de’Rossi, Chastity of Joseph o Only woman to receive mention o Famous sculptor in her day  Lavinia Fontana o Normal pattern for female artist  Father was already accomplished artist, trained in his workshops o First woman accepted into the prestigious Accademia di San Luca  Painter’s academy in Rome o Did not have access to male models, so some of her paintings were stiff o Partially so successful because of novelty of a female painter  Sofonisba Anguisola (1532-1625) o Most accomplished female artist of the renaissance o Famous for commissioned portraits o Credited with inventing new portraiture  Sitters shown in lively activity o Humanism  Women’s education confined to vernacular  Humanist education = to install virtue, moral integrity  What is female virtue? o Silence as female virtue (Aristotle, Plutarch, Barbaro, Alberti)  Leonardo Bruni, On the Study of Literature for Battista Malatesta (1425)  Women should study all aspects of humanism except for rhetoric o Women do not perform in public  Female humanists to read and write Latin as a substitute for needlepoint  Juan Luis Vives, 16 c.  Ippolita Sforza, delivers oration before Pope Pius II at age 14  Praised in wedding orations for classical education o Not everyone wanted a silent wife  The ability to speak well seen as an essential skill  Female humanists delivering public orations  Casandra Fedele o Praised, compared to male humanists  Ability not as a novelty because she is a woman  Isotta and Ginevra Nogarola o Social and practical difficulties of being humanist women o After Ginevra marries, no longer praised for humanist learning o Isotta never married, maintained high reputation  Accused of loose morals, incest  Laura Cereta o “Against women who disparage educated women”  Invective, women crueler than men o One of the first feminists o Boccaccio, On Famous Women  Genre, often plagiarized th  Laura Battiferri, 16 century Florentine poet o Wrote in the style of Petrarch o Poems read throughout Italy o Portrait not idealized, painted and appreciated for her mind Wed Jan 30/13 The Fifteenth Century State: Florence, Milan, and Venice  Florence o 1342-1377, Guild Republicanism  Could not hold a job unless member of a guild  If not a member of a guild, disenfranchised o 1378, Ciompi Revolt  Woolworkers revolt and take over government  Exile upper classes and establish more egalitarian government o 1382-1434, Oligarchic Republicanism  Government re-established  But terrorized by threat of future revolts  Gente nuova (rich middle class) and the old families established an alliance  Politics centred on powerful patrons and individuals o Patronage system  8 leading families control politics and government decisions  Cavalcante, 1410: “Many are called to office but few to power”  Transition from class-based to patronage, similar to ancient Rome  One of the reasons Cicero was so popular  Is government ruled for public or private interests?  Families competed with each other o Medici family  Had an edge over the other families  Not members of the rising middle class, but part of the old families  Maintained close popular ties, cultivating the lower classes o Salvestro Medici sides with lower class Ciompi in 1378  1390, Giovanni di Bicci de’ Medici founds bank  Befriended Baldassarre Cossa  Pirate turned priest, gave money to buy a cardinal hat  Becomes Pope John XXIII in 1410 o Medici gained monopoly over papal funds o Deposed, moved to Florence  1429, 40% of tax revenues came from Medici o Gaining control of the government  1377, Pope Gregory XI returns to Rome from Avignon, France  1378-1417, Great Schism  Two rival popes  1409, Council of Pisa o Elects a third pope, Alexander V, now 3 rival popes  1410, Pope Alexander V dies and Pope John XXIII replaces him  Council of Constance, 1414-1418  Ends the Great Schism  Deposes all 3 popes and elects Pope Martin V in 1417  Cosimo de’ Medici (1389-1464)  Tried to stay out of public eye o Worked behind the scenes in San Lorenzo district  Expanded power, used wealth to buy allegiance o Manipulated debt  Paid off debts and gained new ones  Lent money to government o Foreign connections  Strong connections through banking  Close relationship with the pope  Eugene IV  Government consulted Cosimo about international relations o Through the lower classes  Could form into his own army  Employed them, negotiated for them o Marriage alliances  Tied to several of the most important families in Florence  Seen as a threat to the government, thought he would take over o Taken into custody by Rinaldo de’ Albizzi  To safeguard against poison, allowed to have meals brought in from the outside  Prison guard easily bought off  Easily pocketed what was given, but could have had much more  Messages passed back and forth o Banished to Padua and Venice for 10 years  Welcomed in Venice like a visiting prince  Began planning his return to Florence o Florence elected a new government that liked the Medicis  Cosimo returned and exiled all his enemies  Filled government with Medici supporters, bought the remaining, disenfranchised those against him  Established a new Grand Council that held absolute power over security and taxation (1438)  Expert at using Balia o Emergency all-powerful council set up temporarily in time of war o Whenever Cosimo felt threatened, created an emergency situation  Used the emergency government to banish enemies  Cultivated the image of being a private citizen  Called the puppet master  Foreign powers knew who controlled the government o Sent ambassadors to the Palazzo de’ Medici  Cosimo helped England recuperate after 100 Years War  Florence and Milan – From Enemy to Ally o Francesco Sforza, ruler of Milan o Milan had been ruled by Visconti lords  If Gian Galeazzo Visconti had not died of plague, Florence would have been taken over in 1390s-1402 o Cosimo bribed Sforza to switch sides from Milan to Florence  Strong alliance lasted their lives o Professional mercenaries fought most battles  Condottiere – mercenary captain  Small lords, men of opportunity o Francesco Sforza  Illegitimate son of petty mercenary captain  Inherited his troops, became major leader  Married Bianca Visconti and took over Milan in 1450  Starved Milan out, took 3 years to take over o Helped by Cosimo’s help and money o Sforzas ruled Milan for 40 years o Cosimo ruled Florence, became close ally with Sforza  Became trusted allies o Federico da Montefeltro, duke of Urbino o Sigismondo Malatesta, Lord of Rimini o Este family, rulers of Ferrara o Ambrosian Republic of Milan, 1447-1450  Crushed by Francesco Sforza  Saint Ambrose, patron saint of Milan  Cosimo de’ Medici as Patron of the Arts o Patronized a number of artists  Donatello, sculptor  Michelozzo, architect  Ghiberti, bronze and marble sculptor  Brunelleschi, architect of the Duomo (1436) o Laurenziana  First public library containing over 10,000 of Cosimo’s books  The model for the Vatican Library o Ottoman Turks threatening Byzantium  Fell to the Turks o 1438, Council of Ferrara-Florence, sponsored by Cosimo  To unite Eastern and Western churches  Brought in great minds of the time  Pope Eugene IV, lived in Florence from 1434-1443  Gemistos Plethon – Greek neoplatonic and pagan philosopher  Bessarion: Greek who stayed in Italy and became cardinal  Great advocate of Plato’s philosophy o Piero de’ Medici (1416-1469)  Son of Cosimo, rules Florence from 1464-1469  Cosimo had guaranteed the continuation of Medici power  Died 5 years after coming to power o Lorenzo, 20 years old, takes over  Lorenzo de’ Medici (1449-92), the Magnificent, son of Piero o Had the best humanist education  His poems were read throughout  Seen as representative of Renaissance optimism o Used festivals and art to enhance power o Mingled with the rulers of Italy and treated like a prince  Cultivated image of a private citizen  Lorenzo and brother Giuliano held many parties o 1478, Pazzi Conspiracy  Lorenzo’s brother Giuliano is murdered, Lorenzo escapes  Rival banking family, Pazzi, planned to end the tyranny of the Medici  New deal with Pop Sixtus IV, 1471-1484  Planned to assassinate them during Mass at the Duomo  Francesco Pazzi, Bernardo Baroncelli, Napoleone
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