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HIST 255 Lecture Notes after Midterm

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Queen's University
HIST 255
Anthony Francis D' Elia

HIST 255 – 2 Renaissance and Reformation Wed Mar 6/13 Spain: The Reconquista and Inquisition  “Golden Age”  Many Jews, only real Muslim minority in Europe  Muslim Spain - Al-Andalus o Caliphate of Cordoba, 756-1031  Umayyads ruled  Caliph – monarch who drew authority from lineage of Muhammad  First caliph brought great prosperity, united  987, Great Mosque of Cordoba  Moorish architecture o Geometric and plant designs  Double arches  Reconquista, 8 century to 1492 o Pockets of Christians in the north  Christian kingdoms o Alfonso X El Sabio (1252-1284), king of Castile  “King of the three religions”  Jews and Muslims allowed many liberties, much tolerance  However, widespread anti-Semitism after economic downturn o Convivencia – tolerance  Alternated with open hostility o Christians powers moved south, learned much from Muslim culture o Nasrid Emirate of Granada (1238-1492) th  The Alhambra Palace and Fortress (14 century)  Jews, Muslims, and the Inquisition o 1391, Pogroms in Barcelona  Forced conversions  Conversos  Converted Jews  Christian canon said that even a forced conversion was binding  Many rose to positions of power and married Christians  Rejected by Jews and resented by Christians for taking their jobs o Revolts broke out against Jewish tax collectors and conversos  Accused of being false Christians  Were Jews or atheists  Before 15 century, anti-Semitism was largely based on religion  Now, on account of conversos, becomes ethnic  Limpieza de sangre – purity of blood  Need to preserve purity of blood against Jews and Muslims  Visigoths  Old Christian nobles saw themselves as direct descendants of Visigoths o 1469, marriage of Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon unites two largest kingdoms in Spain  Took 10 years before accepted as heir in spouse’s kingdom (1479)  Sought to unite Spain and reconquer lands under Muslim rule  Major obstacles was the fact that Spain was divided into kingdoms o Violent frontier culture, powerful local elites became petty lords  1470s, civil wars with these lords  Reduced power and forged popular confidence  Directed lords and nobles against the Muslims o Granada – capital of Muslim Spain  Alhambra – 14 century palace fortress  Built by the Moorish rulers of Emirate of Granada  Beautiful gardens, fountains  1492, Muslim king of Granada surrenders  Personally handed keys of the city to Ferdinand  Divided Muslim royal family o Isabella declared Christianity to be the only religion in the kingdom  1492, Expulsion of the Jews  Convert of leave o Muslims received same treatment soon after  Crusading ideal o Restored public security and administration  Sought to restore corrupt Church  Controlled ecclesiastical appointments  Introduced Hold Office of the Inquisition o 1478, Holy Inquisition established to root out judaizing conversos, among others  Convinced Isabella that conversos were still practicing Judaism  1478, Pope gives permission for Holy Inquisition  Senior priests assigned as inquisitors  1481, first major burnings  1550 – 1800, 3,000 death sentences by inquisitorial verdict  Process:  Public sermon and Edict of Grace when first entered a city o Given chance to confess  Lenience in confession  All information recorded, but identities concealed  Sometimes used for personal gain o 2 weeks to several months o If enough evidence, arrested and property confiscated  Inquisitional prisons less harsh than secular ones  Torture permitted when accused did not confess o But purpose was penitential not judicial or punitive  Individual asked to confess and identify his crime before being told what he did  Unrepentant accused permitted legal council o Infrequently used, much less than secular and ecclesiastical  Auto de Fe – public reading of accusation o Public event, means of reinforcing the faith and celebrating penitence o Often involved conviction and reconciliation with the church  Punishment included exile, service, confiscation of goods  Sanbenito – garment worn by convict for rest of life o Intended to shame o When died, hung in the man’s parish church  “Relaxation to the secular arm” o Not permitted to sentence anyone o Relapsed heretics executed by public officers o Social purpose of Inquisition:  Like confession, but public  Guilty meant to repent  Concerned with the mind  Meant to teach a lesson rather than punish o Auto de Fe – the “act of faith”  Public confession  After, heretic burned o Tomas de Torquemada assigned as lead inquisitor o Looked into clerical misconduct, Protestantism, Judaism, heresy, witchcraft o Used to unite Spain and forge a Spanish identity  End of religious pluralism  Militant, white, Christian ideology  Castillian Spanish as official language  New universities, widespread literacy  Culture o Lazarillo de Tormes (1554), anonymous th  The plight of the poor in 16 century Spain  Spanish humanist Luis Vives and Thomas More both condemned private property and blames the misery of the poor on the rich and powerful  God and nature had given all to everyone  More advocated welfare state where city takes care of the poor  Vagrancy and begging outlawed  Expulsion of poor o Meant massacre of large portion of population  Book as autobiography of a beggar in a city, Lazarillo  Uses sarcasm against oppressive forces of his society  Given up as a child to a blind man o Abused and stolen from  Learns to survive on the street  New kind of hero, new genre in literature  Knight or shepherd is replaced by desperate character o 1519, Charles V Habsburg inherits kingdom of Spain  1540, Poor Law passed in Spain o Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616)  Don Quixote de la Mancha (1605-1616)  Chivalric romances, Reconquista, a new kind of hero  Imitates and lives in the romances he read o His own life became fiction o Possessed by idea that the wandering knights of fiction were real  Believes that he himself much become a wandering knight  Priest and barber try to exorcise demon this from him  Pile up his books, each one condemned, to be burned o Parody of the Inquisition  Influences by Italian renaissance  1569, Cervantes went to Rome o Longed to return to Rome  Many references to Italian authors  Emphasizes the dangers of literature  Naïve following of ideals over realities  Mocks chivalric romances o Introduces new kind of hero  Not powerful or good  Often hurts rather than helps when following ideals  Reconquista  Knights battling Moors  Sancho Panza, manservant  Rocinante, Quixote’s white horse  Dangers of idealism – funeral procession, whipped boy  Quixote’s logic – relics and giants  Imagines windmills as giants  Shepherds and sheep become armies  Inn becomes a castle, owner a lord o Begs innkeeper to dub him a knight  Attacks a barber on a donkey o Thinks him the knight Mambrino, takes his helmet  People shocked by him, but not scared  Don Quixote and his horse often beaten up  Often hurts those he tries to help  Demands release of chain-gang of criminals o Freed them, thinking them innocent  Come back later and attack don Quixote  Corpse in funeral procession becomes knight who needs help o Injures those in the funeral procession  Breaks a young man’s leg, reprimands Quixote’s actions  Whipped boy, Quixote takes the whip and whipped the master o Boy found him later, angry because master had whipped him harder after Quiote left  Great criticisms of Catholicism  Religious man tells Quixote he should read bible instead of fiction o Replies that the stories are true  Argues for reality of fiction through existence of relics of knights  Religious relics, commonly used to prove Christianity, may also be fictitious  Written during reformation debates, during inquisition o Literature is not fiction, but real, if based on the existence of relics  Raises questions about Christian belief and scripture  Second part written and published later  Characters have read about their adventure, all but don Quixote and Sancho  Before published, Alfonso Fernandez de Avellaneda published fraudulent second book of Don Quixote o Don Quixote must prove he is not the one in the forgery o To prove it a fraud, Cervantes consciously makes Quixote do the opposite o Fictional characters argue for their own reality  Questions idea of belief  When Quixote retires and returns to reality, struck sick and dies within 6 days o Says he is cured of madness, no longer believed stories or wandering knights o Asks forgiveness of Sancho o Idealism and fantasy essential to keeping man alive  Hero who almost succeeds in living an ideal, but beaten down and dies in despair  Gustave Doree, illustrations of Don Quixote (1863) Fri Mar 8/13 The Age of Exploration  Motives: o Gold and souls o Venice: monopoly of spice trade through Silk Road  Medieval diet: bread and gruel  Fruit and vegetables often rotten  Meat preserved with excessive salt o Important of sauce and spices  Spices important for drugs, perfumes, religious ceremonies  Portugal o Gold, sugar, slaves o Henry the Navigator (1394-1460)  Funded search for sea route to India o Established trading ports along African coast  Sudden, brilliant prosperity  1440s, first gold coin issued  1502, 12-15 ships with gold arrived every year  Established sugar empire o Traded for ivory, ebony, African pepper o Slave trade  Most slaves originally came from northern Greece, Macedonia, Slavic Europe nd th  2 half of 15 century, Portuguese began to bring African slaves  After 1530, greatest income from Africa  Guinea becomes chief source of forced labour for colonists in the new world  Did not distract Portuguese from goal of finding a sea route to India o 1488, Bartholomeu Dias reached Cape of Good Hope o 1494, Treaty of Tordesillas  Divided up South America between Spain and Portugal o 1498, Vasco da Gama rounds Africa and reaches India  Luis Camoes, The Lusiads (1572)  Epic poem describing da Gama’s adventures o With sea route to India, could not compete with the Venetians  Sea route much cheaper than land route o 1500, Pedro Cabral lands in Brazil o 1509, Mameluke Sultan of Egypt attacks Portugal  Trading ally of Venice  But Portuguese already too strong o Lisbon becomes centre of spice and slave market  Venetian power in Europe declined  1515, Venice forced to buy pepper from Portugal o 16 century saw a shift from Mediterranean to Atlantic o 1557, Colony of Macao founded  Spain o Columbus (1451-1506)  Genoese, sights New World (San Salvador) in 1492 for Spain  Convinced he could find a quicker route to India by sailing west  Motive was wealth and religion  Saw his voyage as a crusade o Dreamt of reconquering Jerusalem, wanted to find enough gold to finance  Fondness for nature, curiosity  Marvelled at discovery  Made lists of monsters and strange creatures he saw on his travels  Looked for what he heard about in Mandeville and Marco Polo  Believed he could him earthly paradise in the New World  Saw natives as close to paradise, lack of culture  Peace-loving and generous as first o Later, saw them stealing repeatedly  Distinguished between good Indians and bad  Did not find gold immediately  Sent shiploads of natives back to Spain to work as slaves  Brought soldiers and constructed fortresses  Marvelled at America, but did not try to understand Americans  Believed he had reached the far East o 1521, Ferdinand Magellan sails across Pacific to Philippines (sailing for Spain)  “First circumnavigation of globe”  But killed in Philippines, so quite did not make it all the way o Only 18 men returned from the journey  Accomplishment overshadowed by the gold of the New World o Ancient and medieval travel literature  Herodotus, The Histories (450 BCE)  The Travels of Sir John Mandeville (1322)  Inspiration for Columbus’ fantasies  Combination of new and fabulous events o Men with no heads, face on their chest  Described Prester John, mythical Christian king in the East  Marco Polo, Il Milione (ca. 1320)  Adventures in China at the Mongol courts  Highly valued by Columbus o Explorers believed they would meet the monsters and strange people described in literature o King Ferdinand of Spain o World became much larger  But it also became finite  Lost its mystery o Europeans already used to contact with different peoples and cultures in the Mediterranean  Called Aztec temples “mosques” o Great interest in Turkey and the Ottoman Empire  Hated and feared, but Europeans very curious about them  More popular subject than New World o Gold and silver from America used to buy spices from the east  Lust for gold became prime motive for colonization  Much mining in New World  New World and Spanish America o Gold discovered in Hispaniola, Cuba, Puerto Rico  Hispaniola: 1492, 1 million indigenous natives  1510, 100,000 left o Small pox, famine, ruthless exploitation  Water used to flush out veins, natives made to sift out the gold  Settlers moved on to other islands in search of more mines and natives  Native populations suffered everywhere o Hernan Cortes (1485-1547) and the Aztecs  Lands in Mexico, 1519  Encountered organized, hierarchical societies willing to defend themselves o Very similar to the Spaniards  Warrior ethos, fervent religious faith, justified imperial expansion by theological ideals  However, remained stone age civilization  No metallurgy, no wheel  Met Montezuma, Aztec ruler  Central Mexico: 1519, 25 million  Most densely-populated part of Americas  1580, 1 million indigenous native left  Malintzin (Dona Marina): Cortes’ interpreter  Native woman, given to Cortes as a gift o Gathered all the information he could  Taught Cortes the language, culture  125,000 native allies for Spanish o Helped Spaniards defeat natives  Master manipulator  Pyramid steps  Treated Aztecs with respect  Exploited local rivalries o Presented himself as the liberator of one group against the other  Created awe-inspiring reputation o Horses never seen before, natives not sure if mortal or divine o Misinformed Aztecs, ambiguous o Destroyed Aztec idols o Cannons and musket made louder and more explosive o Built a catapult for show o Used Aztec mythology for himself  Cortes arrived in the year that Quetzalcoatl was to return  Said his king was this god, native eventually saw Cortes as this god  Cortes as fulfilling a prophecy o November 8, 1519: Spanish enter Tenochtitlan  Cortes destroyed his 11 ships so there would be no turning back  Decided to destroy and conquer capital  Europeans amazed by beauty and complexity of a city in the middle of a lake  Enormous market, luxury goods, slaves  Aztecs were just as imperialistic in Mesoamerica as Spanish were  Brutal culture o Human sacrifice, cannibalism  Spanish and allies welcomed at first  Taken to temple, shown sacrifice (described by Dias) o Heart presented to idols o Limbs eaten, head hung on a beam, body thrown to birds o Dias called the temple “true Hell”  Set up a small chapel, settled in o Ordered imprisonment of Montezuma within a week  Slowly and surely took over the city  Velasquez, Spanish force sent from Cuba against Cortes  Cortes defeated them, told vanquished troops they could return to Cuba or join him o Marched back to Tenochtitlan with 12,000 men o Aztec religion  Cue – Aztec temple  Human sacrifice o Annual festival of Toxcatl, June 30, 1520, Noche Triste  While Cortes away, Alvarado in charge  Gave permission for the festival to occur o Alvarado attacked them while celebrating  Spaniards trapped o Asked Montezuma to try and calm the people down  Pelted with rocks, died  Natives blamed Montezuma’s death on the Spaniards  Cortes, men, allies, tried to escape, discovered o Eventually made it to the lakeshore o 1521, Siege and Fall of Tenochtitlan (now Mexico City)  150,000 population overpowered by 1500 Spaniards  Had much support from native allies (over 125,000) o Allies never abandoned the Spaniards, even when losing  Combined naval and land operation  City in the middle of a lake o Built 13 small ships with cannon o Canals made movement difficult  Cortes cut the city off from outside allies  Defenders worn down, diseased  Eventually defeated  Established tradition of the noble enemy  From crusading ideal, Muslims as gentlemen  Spaniards had respect for Aztecs o Cities well-organized, houses beautiful, people refined o Cortes tried to preserve Aztec culture  Punished plunderers  Last great crusade  Many of the knights from the Reconquista went to the new world  Cortes was first European to take natives seriously  Francisco Pizarro (1476-1541), conqueror of Peru o 1532-1538, battles and conquest of Inca Wed Mar 13/13 The Reformation: Erasmus, Luther, and Calvin  Christian Humanism o Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1466-1536)  Greek New Testament (1516)  Published, saw many printed editions o Greek on one side, Latin on the other  The Vulgate (“crowd” or “popular”) o Translated by Saint Jerome (347-420 CE) o Official Latin translation of Bible before Erasmus  Many did not know Greek o Erasmus discovered many words in St Jerome’s translation were not in the original text  By going back to the original source, challenged medieval Christian doctrine  Addressed key issues of the day  Aldus Manutius, Venetian printer  Hired Erasmus to find and translate texts  The Ciceronian (1528)  Satire on Italian humanists o Satire allowed author to claim ideas presented were not his o Care too much about eloquence, not enough about content o Excesses and absurdity  Care more about imitating Cicero more than Christ  Criticized Pope Julius II o Condemns excessive classicism, take Saints as models, not Cicero  Handbook of the Christian Soldier (1504)  Idea of Philosophia Christi, Philosophy of Christ  Manual of piety for ordinary lay people o Individuals should study scripture themselves, rather than listening to interpretations of theologians  Too much concentration on ritual and ceremony, neglects inner piety  Makes Christians superstitious and pagan  Encomium Moriae (Praise of Folly) (1511)  Satire, written while in England  Title refers to Thomas More (1478-1535) o Joke, plays on More’s name  Satire on monasticism and corruption in the church  Personified folly praises the hypocrisy of almost everyone o Theologians argue and ask impossible questions  Apostles persuaded by example, not logic  Best example of Christian humanism  Disseminated Humanism to northern countries  Used satire to advocate a better world  Criticized by both sides  Protestants thought his criticisms did not go far enough  Catholics thought him heretical, too Protestant  Essential in reformation, though horrified by it  Not a single event, but a complex process of various conditions  Popular Pithy on tth Eve of the Reformation o 14 and 15 centuries were very religious times  Religious ideas were very real o The Mass as the central focus of religion  Many confraternities devoted to saying masses for the dead o Devotio Mothrna  14 century, lay religious movement  Arose in Netherlands  Lived in communities, committed to chastity and devotion  But did not take vows  Imitation of Christ emerges  Devout encouraged to imitate Christ o Printing  Guthnberg’s first book was the Bible  13 century, The Golden Legends of Jacob of Voragine  Popular printed work in early 16 century  Lives of saints  Erasmus and Luther made great use of the printing press o Virgin Mary as mediator: Cult of the Virgin  Permitted, but not fully endorsed by the Church  Man justified more in Mary than in Christ  Mary mediated before Christ, the judge  Immaculate conception  That she was conceived without sin (Doctrine in 1854)  Mary was free of Original Sin  Assumption of Mary  No death (Doctrine in 1954) o Relics: St. Elizabeth of Hungary  Relics venerated as having miraculous powers  Elizabeth ripped apart by faithful, wanting to get a piece of the saint  Frederick the Wise, Elector of Saxony  Collected 17,000 relics by 1518 o Included 33 fragments of the cross and 204 pieces of Holy Innocents o Pilgrimages  Shrine of Saint James in Santiago de Compostella, Spain  People walk there  Local shrines become increasingly popular  People went for many reasons  Seek cures and miracles  As penance or fulfilment of a vow  Vital social function, people got together o Indulgences  Depended on the belief that Christ, Virgin Mary, and the saints provide the church with surplus of goodness  Portion it out in the form of indulgences  1476, Pope Sixtus IV extends indulgences to shorten time in Purgatory  Faithful could shorten time loved ones spend time in Purgatory by buying indulgences and praying  Open to corruption  Provided backing for Luther’s initial polemic against church o Modern church too physical  Penance often required excessive physical hardships o Tension between clergy and laity  Lay confraternities  Clerical monopoly on sacraments, religious doctrine, and bible interpretation  Considered higher than the lay o Protestants elevated lay state, eliminated clerical special treatment  Church corruption  Immoral and illiterate priests o Medieval schools of theology: Scholasticism, Faith vs. Reason debate  Rationalists: Thomas Aquinas and Duns Scotus  Reason can prove God  Appropriated Aristotle’s philosophy  Nominalists: William of Occam  Reason cannot find God, only faith  No proof that words are anything more than arbitrary, agreed-upon sounds, names without reality o Logic is a product of human reason, cannot understand the divine  Augustine: “credo ut intelligam” o “I believe in order to understand”  Erasmus and Luther sided with Nominalists o Theology had to start with faith  The heart rather than the mind  Pelagianism  4 century heresy, God’s grace not necessary for salvation o Church said that God’s grace was necessary, but so was good works  Erasmus’ translation of New Testament  Corrected a Vulgate translation o Not “do penance” but Greek verb “metanoiete”, “to change your mind”  Turn away from sin, physical penance not necessary o Church more worldly as expanded land-power  Church taxes, sought to extend secular powers  Germany: no centralized authority  Loosely aligned kingships  Papacy seen as foreign Italian power o Germany resented high taxes  1520, Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation o Luther tries to call General Council to reform Church  Weaknesses of papacy prevented reform  Anti-clericalism o Corruption, abuses, absenteeism  Priests and bishops not in parishes  If not Luther, someone else would have started the Reformation  Martin Luther (1483-1546) o 1505, thunderstorm, fears for his life  Vow to St. Anne to become Augustinian Monk if she saved him  Next few years filled with spiritual anguish  Prayed ceaselessly, confessed very often  Anxiety, sin and penance o Aware of his sinful nature, unable to love God with all his heart  Christ as a judge, cold  Believed man could make himself righteous by performing penance o 1511, moved to Wittenberg o 1515, “Tower Experience”  Luther staying in a tower in Wittenberg castle  St. Paul and Righteousness of God  Sola Fide: man justified by faith alone o Could not earn salvation by merit, only trust in god  Gift of Grace, not merit o Angry God had become merciful o 1515, Plenary Indulgence  Johan Tetzel, Dominican monk  Spearheaded marketing in area near Wittenberg  Luther saw as exploitation of faithful o October 31, 1517: Luther nails 95 Theses to door of Wittenberg cathedral  Following a standard practice, where scholars would post a thesis that they wished to debate in public  Meant to raise issues for debate, not break from Rome  Do not contain any explicit break from the church, except about indulgences  Church is gospel, should not give indulgences  Translated into German and printed  Pope Leo X saw as a problem of monastic discipline  Ordered Augustinians to silence Luther o Refused o October 1518, Diet of Augsburg  Luther accused of heresy for not accepting indulgences  Given 60 days to appear in Rome o Knew would be arrested if went, protected by Prince Frederick, said would have trial in Germany  Told Luther to recant, Luther refused  Argued that the treasure of the Church was the gospel o Luther called the pope the anti-Christ  Break with Rome was inevitable o 1520, Exsurge Domine  Papal Bull condemning Luther as heretical  Luther publically burned the Bull o January 3, 1521, Pope Leo X excommunicates Luther o Luther calls on German rulers to reform church  Called papal authority a human invention o On the Babylonish Captivity of the Church (1520)  7 sacraments reduced to 3  Baptism, bread, scripture  Luther denies Holy Orders (clergy) as sacrament  Sacrament depended on faith of recipient, not on the priest  No mediator needed except for faith  No mediator, just Word of Scripture (Bible)  Sola Scriptura  Made reconciliation impossible o On Christian Liberty (1520)  Justification by faith alone, not good works  Priesthood of all believers  Inner man is all that matters, rituals and ceremonies meaningless unless the man has faith  Inner man, not exterior rituals o Preface to the Epistle to the Romans (1522)  Faith and good works o 1521, Diet and Edict of Worms  Last chance for Luther  Does not recant o Condemned to death  Before could be signed, 2 rulers left the city  Edict could be ignored o 1529, “Protestants” first called at Diet of Speyer  Before, break with church not seen as permanent  Lutherans protested the council and did not go  Called Protestants o Luther had princely support and wide popular appeal  Most success in cities, where preachers could reach large numbers of people o Many positives  No taxes  Church lands confiscated and sold  Many priests given liberty to marry and have children o 1524, Peasants Revolt in June  Against the Robbing and Murdering Hordes of Peasants (May 1525)  Thomas Munster, leader of Peasants and Anabaptists o Luther on Marriage  Condemns celibacy of clergy as cause of corruption  Advocates married clergy o Friedrich III, Elector of Saxony o Doctrine of Christian Liberty and Scripture Alone  Notion of subjectivity that would fragment Protestantism into many faiths  Jean Calvin (1509-1564) o Second generation reformer o Attracted to Lutheranism o 1541, Geneva adopts Calvin’s Ecclesiastical Ordinances  Enforced public morality  Church attendance was compulsory  Dancing, gambling, prostitution outlawed o 1542, Michael Servetus burnt at the stake  Calvin now ruled Geneva without opposition o Institutes (1559)  Became treatise of Calvinism  Many Lutheran ideas  Justification by faith alone, bondage of human will by original sin  Used Humanist methods to interpret scripture  Predestination at birth  Because of original sin, man has no free will o Necessary servitude of sin o Man can do nothing on his own but evil  Corrupt, sins voluntarily  Two kinds of people: the elect and the damned o God gives salvation to some but denies it to others o Some can be saved, others are destined for eternal damnation  No control over our fate  Protestant work ethic  Max Weber o Calvinists: Huguenot in Southern France and the Presbyterians in Scotland o Huldreich Zwingli (1484-1531)  Rival of Calvin  Iconoclasm  Destroyed images, interpreted bible literally o Rejected saints  Widespread destruction of Christian art Fri Mar 15/13 Catholic Reform: Theresa and Ignatius  Terms: Counter-Reformation vs. Catholic Reform o Catholic reform not merely a reaction against the protestants but a reform in and of itself  Vittoria Colonna (1490-1547) o Catholic poetry and art  Wrote love poetry to Christ o Wanted to become a nun in a convent, but pope persuaded her otherwise  Could better serve Christendom outside as a widow  Member of a very important family o Sin, penance, forgiveness  Focus on the cross and Christ’s redemption o Christ’s passion o Imagined herself as a Virgin Mary, meditating on the grief of a mother o Saint Mary Magdalene  One of the most important saints in the reform Church  Paramount example of a sinner who converted, was saved, then was sainted  Turned away from sin and gained salvation o Titan, Penitent Magdalene painted for Vittoria  Wrote poetry about it o Caravaggio, Peter’s Denial  After Christ was arrested, denied knowing him 3 times  Shown crying at his failure o “Tears of Saint Peter” o Use of penitent Mary Magdalene and crying Peter showed the saints as human o Michelangelo, drawings for Vittoria Colonna  Pieta and Crucifixion  Focus on suffering and pain  Puts Virgin Mary in the centre, a powerful female figure like Vittoria  Vittoria wrote a poem about the drawing  Michelan
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