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HLTH 101 Study Guide - Final Guide: World Health Organization, Epidemiological Transition, Pertussis

Health Studies
Course Code
HLTH 101
Elaine Power
Study Guide

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HLTH Key terms
Week 1
Public Health: refers to the health of a population, the longevity of its individual members and the extent
to which they are free from disease. Can also be seen as a philosophy of intervention aimed at protecting
and promoting the health of the population
Epidemiology: Study of patterns causes, and effects of various health related features in a population
Population Attribute: A characteristic of a group of people that does not apply to each and every
The Lalonde Report: argues that health care services are not the primary means of improving health, nor
according to the document can we rely on improved living conditions to enhance health
The Epp Report: Identifies the first, and largest challenges: to reduce inequalities in health between
high- and low-income Canadians. The Epp Report introduces the “health promotion framework”
The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion: The charter created in 1986 calls for coordinated action
among all levels of government, non-governmental organizations, communities, and families in persuit of
physical and social environment conductive to health, access to health information, and the development
of life skills and opportunities for making healthy choices.
Health promotion: Promoting healthy lifestyles and better lifestyle habits
health education: Educating people about the effects of potential bad health habits
Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC): The role of PHAC is to promote health, prevent and control
chronic disease and injuries, prevent and control infectious disease, and prepare for and respond to public
health emergencies
World Health Organization (WHO): is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is
concerned with international public health.
Population Health: The health of an overall population weather that be in a community, a city or a
Health Disparities: inequalities that exist when members of certain population groups do not benefit
from the same health status as other groups.
Health Inequalities: Patterned differences in disease incidences, disability and life expectancy between
Health Inequities: Patterned differences in disease incidences, disability, and life expectancy between
sub-populations that arise from conditions that can be changed by collective action, such as changes in
public policies.
Health Gradients (or gradients in health): refers to the fact that inequalities in population health status
are related to inequalities in social status. This study advances and tests a model of the relationships
between what we term primary and secondary determinants of the social gradient in health
Neoliberal Political Ideology: aligns well with a conventional view of health that regards health
outcomes as mostly a product of genes (about which we can currently do very little) and risks
(which are substantially within a persons own control)
Social Determinants of Health: income and social status, social support networks, education and
literacy, employment and working conditions, social environments, physical environments, healthy child
development, health services, gender and culture.
Individual determinants of health (or lifestyle determinants of health): behavioral and biological
models of health
Week 2
Social Patterning of Behavior: the usually (unconscious) determination of behaviour by
contextual factors such as place in social network, the characteristics of one’s neighbourhood, he
norms and structures of one’s workplace, class, and social position
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“Blaming the Victim”: One of the major challenges to the social patterning of behavior model is that
much of the time it ends up blaming the victim of disease for making poor health choices
Secular or Temporal change: Long-term trends (usually understood as over more than five years) in
beliefs, values, and behaviour
Marginalized (marginalization): People who are judged based on other opinions and beliefs when there
isn’t necessarily anything they can do about their position
Dispossessed (dispossession): deprive (someone) of something that they own, typically land or property.
Miasma: The air born disease that was blamed for making people sick, before it was discovered by John
Snow that it was actually cholera
Germ Theory of Disease: states that some diseases are caused by microorganisms.
Infectious Diseases: are disorders caused by organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites.
Many organisms live in and on our bodies. They're normally harmless or even helpful, but under certain
conditions, some organisms may cause disease.
Chronic Diseases: A disease that lasts over three months, chronic diseases generally cannot be prevented
by vaccines or cured by medication, nor do they just disappear.
Typhus: an infectious disease caused by rickettsia, characterized by a purple rash, headaches, fever, and
usually delirium, and historically a cause of high mortality during wars and famines.
Cholera: A water born disease was that discovered by John Snow
Tuberculosis: an infectious bacterial disease characterized by the growth of nodules (tubercles) in the
tissues, especially the lungs.
Pertussis: The medical term for whooping cough
Demographic Transition: Falling death rates in population associated with rising affluence yielding first
rapid population growth followed by declining birth rates.
Epidemiologic Transition: falling rates of infectious, parasites, and nutritional diseases and rising
prominence of chronic disease associated with growing affluence.
Morbidity: Any departure from a normal state such as illness or disability. It is often used not quite
correctly as a synonym for disease
Mortality: Death
Life Expectancy: the average number of years members of a given population can be expected to live
given the current mortality (death) rates apply
Premature Mortality: The calculation of potential year of life lost before age 70
Infant Mortality: the deaths of children less than one-year-old is generally regarded as reliable
summative measure of the health of a population combined with the availability and quality of health
Social Capital: the networks of relationships among people who live and work in a particular society,
enabling that society to function effectively.
Advocacy: public support for or recommendation of a particular cause or policy.
Week 3
Social Epidemiology: The attempt to determine the cause of health differences between sub-populations
of people
Cumulative Exposures: Aggregate effect of all exposures that an organism receives from the first to the
last exposure to a substance.
“normal” (or bell-shaped) statistical distribution: The normal distribution showing a populations
Prospective Cohort Studies: study that follows over time a group of similar individuals (cohorts) who
differ with respect to certain factors under study, to determine how these factors affect rates of a certain
outcome. Example: The Whitehall studies
Progressive Taxes and Social Policies: Aimed to help the citizens in lower class ranges and bring them
out of their status of poverty
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