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[HLTH 101] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (54 pages long!)


Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTH 101
Professor
Elaine Power
Study Guide
Midterm

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Queen's
HLTH 101
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Terms from the Readings/Viewings to Know & Understand
Week 1 September 19th, 2015
Public Health:
o Refers to health of population, longevity of individual members,
extent to which they’re free from disease.
o Philosophy of intervention is to protect and promote health of
population.
o Geared towards the prevention of illness rather than simply the
provision of care and treatment services.
o Science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting
physical health and efficiency.
o Development of social machinery, which will ensure to every
individual in the community to a standard of living adequate for the
maintenance of health.
o Main goal: To improve the health status of the population by reducing
disease and early (preventable) deaths in populations
o Recognizes the importance of individual contributions to injury &
disease but more interested in understanding how to reduce or
alleviate hazards by addressing underlying causes (i.e., upstream not
downstream)
Epidemiology:
o The science based on the modern concepts of hosts and agents.
o Study of the patterns, causes, and effects of various health-related
features in a population.
Population Attribute:
o A characteristic of a group of people that does not apply to each and
every individual making up that group.
o A statistic such as an average.
o For example, average blood pressure for a group of people, is a
population attribute and may not equate to the blood pressure of all
or even any of the individuals making up the group.
Biomedical Model of Health
o This approach calls for use of drugs and shifting dietary choices.
o Determinants: Genetic predisposition & energy inputs/outputs & Low
or high birth weight
o Prevention/Treatment: Gene therapy & drugs & surgery
o Heavily conditioned by the market-place in health care, as it is about
marketing services and goods to individuals.
Behavioural Model of Health
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o Shifts attention to lifestyle understood as choices the individual
makes
o Health in this model is functionality (choosing more exercise, better
foods, and less stressful situations)
o Calls for strategies to incentivize physical exercise and penalize
choosing high energy foods
o Determinants: Inactivity & excess consumption of high energy foods
o Aligns strongly with liberal ideology, which in turn aligns with the
nature of the market economies of the Anglo-American world.
o Prevention/Treatment: Increase minutes of moderate exercise to
vigorous exercise & change diet to low glycemic index foods
o Thinking aligns strongly with liberal ideology, which in turn aligns
with the nature of the market economies of the Anglo-American
world.
Population Model of Health
o Determinants: Industrial food production & subsides, taxation regime
& corporate advertising and promotion
o Prevention/Treatment: Community based food policies & regulation
of food industry & improved working conditions, income, housing and
community amenities.
o Population level health differences arise from social inequalities thus
reducing them is a matter of social justice.
o Distribution of bases for good health education, employment,
income, housing and personal safety are more significant factors in
determining a populations health than health care services and
conventional public health activities
The Lalonde Report
o April 1974, Canadian gov’t published a paper entitled A New
Perspective on the Health of Canadians
o Called Lalonde report because Marc Lalonde was the federal minister
responsible for health at the time of publication
o Report marks beginning of a shift in thinking away from the
conventional view of health toward something considerably more
radical
o Argues that health care services are not primary means of improving
health and nor can we rely on improved living conditions and
conventional public health measures to enhance health
o Economic progress has brought fresh threats to health and well being
o Things that put pleasing of the senses above the needs of the human
body: environmental pollution, city living, habits of indolence, alcohol
abuse, tobacco, drugs and eating patterns
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