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HLTH 101 Final Exam Notes

Health Studies
Course Code
HLTH 101
Elaine Power
Study Guide

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What is poverty?
o Absolute poverty
Considered minimum amount you need for food clothing shelter and
others essentials
o Relative poverty
Feeling poor relative to those around you
According to Hugh Segal;
o Poverty is, in the beginning and in the end, about not having enough money to
live on with-self respect, dignity or hope
o Occurs when people are systematically excluded from meaningful participation
in economic, social, political, cultural and other forms of human activity in their
communities and thus are denied the opportunity to fulfill themselves as human
beings” UNESCO
Poverty Rates in Canada
o Low income cut off
o Almost 1 in 10 people are living in poverty
o The state of the economy influences poverty trends, as the economy goes down
poverty goes up, when there is strong economic growth poverty goes up
Poverty rates for seniors are generally not effected by the economy
The cost of poverty
o Direct cost
Social assistant
o Indirect cost
Homelessness (shelter, police, ambulance, emergency ward)
Justice system, education, health care
o Societal cost,
Wasted potential, lost tax dollars
o Human cost
Indignity, humiliation, shame, stigma, guilt, suffering
o Cost of Homelessness in Calgary
Estimated cost of emergency shelter, emergency hospital care, law
enforcement and other social services for one homeless person
Estimated cost to provide supportive housing for one person
“Basic Income” or BI- James Mulvale
o “Financial benefit that is universal, unconditional and adequate to ensure a
decent life”
o Aka, Guaranteed Annual Income (GIA); negative income tax
o Benefits of BI
Recognitions of unpaid labour- domestic, volunteer
More flexible labour force- more choice- end of exploitation?
Promoted economic independence for women
Simplifies that income security system> more deficiencies (saving)
Enhances consumer purchasing power, stimulating the economy
Enhances democracy, political empowerment and equality of opportunity;
promotes dignity of all
Acts as a force for social cohesion, Canadian unity

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Removed stigma and punitive aspects of income support programs
Potential to “end poverty” and limit marginalization> decreased cost in
health care, criminal justice, education, child welfare system, human
o Potential downsides of a BI
Reinforced traditional gender roles
Loss of income if benefit is inadequate
Loss of labour force attachment and non-monetary benefits
Downward pressures on wages
o Vested interest
o Ideological opposition- role of the state; role of paid labour’ work ethic’ ingrained
stereotypes of people who are poor
o Upfront expenses
Mincome Experiment
o 1974-1978, Dauphin MB
o Federal-provincial experiment- context of the US “War on poverty”; Medicare;
expansion of the welfare state
o Originally interested in effects on employment and divorce
o Important effects on
Educations: teens stay in school
Health: injuries, accidents down, less hospitalization for mental illness
The Implications of Early Childhood Development for Adult Health Outcomes
UN Convention on the Rights of the Child
o Human rights treaty setting out the civil, political, economic, social health and
cultural rights of children
o Ratified by all members of the United Nations, excepts the US and Somalia
o Legally binding
o Many pertain to child heath and adequate living standards
o Article 24 (Health and health services): Children have the right to good quality
health care- the best health care possible- to safe drinking water, nutritious food,
a clean and safe environment, and information to help them stay healthy, Rich
countered should help poorer countries achieve this
o Article 26 (Social security): Children- either through their guardians or directly-
have the right to help from the government if they are poor or in need
o Article 27 (Adequate Standard of Living_: Children have the right to a standard of
living that is good enough to meet their physical and mental needs. Government
should help families and guardians who cannot afford to provide this,
particularly with regard to food, clothing and housing
How is Canada Doing
o Higher poverty rates among
Single parent females
Aboriginal people
Visible minorities
How does poverty affect child health?
o More likely to have low birth weight, asthma, type 2 diabetes, malnutrition
o 2.5 x more likely to have a disability; less likely to have medical and community

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o Less likely to have benefit plans for prescription drugs, vision dental
o More likely to have learning disabilities, emotional difficulties, behavioral
problem, decreased ability to cope
o More likely to die from accidental injuries
How do childhood poverty effect social determinants of health?
o Poorer access to nutritious food
o Fewer opportunities for recreation
o More likely to live in substandard housing
o Poorer neighbourhoods
o Poorer educational outcomes- less likely to graduate high school or university;
therefore, less likely to get a well-paid secure job with benefits
Are the effects of childhood poverty on adult health?
o More likely to experience addictions, poor mental health, chronic illness,
premature death
Infant mortality
o Infant mortality in Canada decreased from 1979-1998, but then appears to have
o Infant mortality in Canada was 5.4 per 1,000 live births in 2005, a decrease by
half since 1979 (10.9 per 1,000 live births
o Despite its low ratings, Canada’s infant mortality has improved over the past four
o Canada’s infant mortality rate is still slightly higher than some countries (Japan
and Norway have the lowest infant mortality rate at around 3 deaths per 1,000
live births), but it is comparable to Australia and the United Kingdom, and lower
than the U.S. (7 infant deaths per 1,000 live births).
o However, inequalities do exist: life expectancy is significant lower for Canada’s
Registered Indian population.
o Comparison:
Even though Canada’s infant mortality rate has decreased since the 1960s,
the rate of improvement has been lower than in most of Canada’s peer
countries. Japan’s infant mortality rate, for example, was higher than
Canada’s in 1960, at 31 infants per 1,000 live births. In 2006 it was 2.6,
about half the rate in Canada.
o Infant mortality rate by neighbourhoods income
Significant different in infant mortality rates between neighbourhoods
with the lowest and highest incomes
The Barker Hypothesis
o Dr. David Barker, M.D., Ph. D, FRS
Physician and professor of clinical epidemiology at the University of
Southampton, UK and Professor in the Department of Cardiovascular
Medicine at the Oregon at the Health and Science University
The Barker hypothesis (1994): “poor nutrition, health and development
among girls and young women is the origin of the high death rates from
cardiovascular disease in the next generation “
Claims heart disease is linked to low birth weight instead of lifetime of
“Babies do not depend on what the mother eats each day… The Baby’s
body is a reflection of the mother’s lifetime nutrition
Coronary Heart Disease: Risk high in people who have low birth weight
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