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HLTH 101 Study Guide - Summer 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Tobacco Smoking, Public Health, Obesity


Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTH 101
Professor
Elaine Power
Study Guide
Midterm

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HLTH 101
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018

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HLTH 101 Lecture 1
Introduction to the Social Determinants of Heath
Models of Health
Individual Level of Analysis
o Health in the biomedical understanding is the absence of disease, whereas ill
health arises from the interaction of host characteristics of age, sex, and
genes with environmental variables and health-related behaviours
o Behavioral model
Recognizes that individual choices are bound by opportunities and
education
But construes health-relevant behaviour as chosen by individuals
o Both of these individual-level models believe improving health comes from
health-care services, health education, and efforts to modify health-relevant
behaviour through incentives, regulation, and the like
Contextual Approach
o Considers attributes of the population, the place, and the social, economic,
cultural, and political structure in which the individual is embedded
o Good or bad health arises from the interaction among determinants that
operate on more than one level
o Multi-level framework*
o Pursuing health as a goal requires COLLECTIVE (political) action
Example of diff models approaches
o Biomedical approach calls for reducing diabetes by placing people on blood
sugar medication and instructing people to shift their dietary choices away
from sugary foods
o The behavioural approach calls for strategies to incentivize physical exercise
and penalize choosing high-energy foods
o Both approaches are of small benefit at best
They are palliative, meaning treating the symptoms but not the larger
problem (ie the cause).
They will not slow the rising incidence of obesity and diabetes in the
Anglo-American populations
Marmot
o Population-level health differences arise from social inequalities and NOT
from the fault of individuals
o Reducing health inequalities is a matter of social justice
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o Distribution of the bases for good health education, employment, income,
housing, and personal safety are far more significant factors in determining
a population’s health than health-care services and conventional public
health activities
o Britain is in need of substantial reform
Individual-Level Methods of Health and Liberal Ideology
o Health care is about marketing services and goods to individuals
o Behavioural thinking aligns strongly with liberal ideology
o Liberal societies characterize individuals as being at liberty to choose
whatever is in their best interests
o Neoliberalism: political movement originating in the US & Britain that seeks
to shrink the size of government, reduce regulations of corporations and
markets, and cut taxes
o Solidarity principle: believed in northern Europe that people are linked to
others with their welfare tied to the health and welfare of the other members
of their community
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