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HLTH101 Final: HLTH 101 Week 1-12 Study Notes

Health Studies
Course Code
HLTH 101
Elaine Power
Study Guide

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HLTH 101 Exam Review: Weeks 2-12
Week 2: Population Health
Key points from lecture:
What is public health?:
Main Goal: Improve health status of the population by reducing disease and early deaths in
Concerns how things should be, how they ought to be, rather than how they actually are
Physical, social and mental well being
What we do collectively to assure the conditions in which people can be healthy
The patientis the population
Health benefits to the population, may never directly impact you, although brings
nation/provincial rates down
Examples of legislations: seat belts, smoking, vaccinations, clean drinking water, food safety
To improve health
Reduce poverty
Reduce income inequality
Improve opportunities for higher education
Reduce homelessness
Reduce racism and discrimination
Improve gender equality
What does ideology have to do with health/ public health?
Ideology: a relatively coherent system of values, beliefs or ideas shared by some social group
and often taken for granted natural inherently true
How we understand the world in which we live in
People will have different opinions on (e.g.) vaccinations, thus affecting a population
Collectivists and Socialist ideology
Emphasis on: the role of the state as a principal means of social improvement
Limiting the effects of capitalism
Key words: humanitarianism, social justice, social responsibility, interconnection, community
Liberal Individualist or Neoliberal Ideology
Emphasis on: the role of the market in promoting individual freedom;social goods secondarily
limiting the role of the state (except in maintaining order and protecting private property)
Key words: freedom, self-determination, personal responsibility, consumer choice

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Environmental and Green Ideology
Emphasis on: interconnectedness of humans, human health and the environment,
destructiveness of economic growth at all costs, indifference of the state to the environment,
local, community-cased actionsKey words: sustainable, development, ecological, co-systems,
interdependence, community-based, ecological model of health
Key points from readings:
Social Determinants of Health: A comparative Approach (p.16-40)
Risk factor model: a biomedical variant; focuses on the interaction of host and agent. a
behaviour variant; emphasizes health behaviour (lifestyle factors). Key considerations: age,
sex, genetics
John Snow (1813-1853): Physician, credited with inventing both modern epidemiology and
health geography
Friedrich Engels (1820-1895): Provided data to show that the death rates of poor people in
urban centres were much higher than the death rates of poor people in rural settings
Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902): Father of modern pathology
Emile Durkheim (1858-1917): Father of sociology, developed the concept of social facts
Social Facts: Human artifacts in the sense that they arise from interaction of people in groups.
Demographic Transition: From a stage of low economic development (high birth and high
death rates) to a stage of relatively advantaged economic growth characterized by declining
birth rates
Epidemiologic Transition: Relationship between birth and death rates; the kinds of disease that
afflict a population, and the level of resources that are available to that population
Morbidity: Any departure from a natural state, such as illness or disability
Incidence: #of new cases that arise in a specific population in specific period of time
Prevalence: Not a rate, but rather a simple count of the number of cases in a population at a
point in time
Terms to know from Week 2:
1. Gross Domestic Product (GDP): One of the primary indicators used to gauge the health of a
country's economy. It represents the total dollar value of all goods and services produced over a
specific time period; you can think of it as the size of the economy.
Social patterning of behaviour: First approach: to change individual behaviour to improve
health. A weakness tends to be to blame the victim.
2. Blaming the victim: It can be almost impossible to determine how far a patients lifestyle is
a matter of choice versus social pressures and constraints. Nonetheless, when a patient does not
respond to advice to change, the clinician can be tempted inappropriately to blame the victim.
3. Secular Change: Factors associated with development that had nothing to do wit the
4. Temporal Change: Short-term time frame for change

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5. Marginalized (marginalization): to relegate to an unimportant or powerless position within a
society or group
6. Dispossessed (dispossession): Without property, status, etc.; displaced persons; rootless,
7. Miasma Theory: The theory held that the origin of epidemics was due to a miasma,
emanating from rotting organic matter.
8. Germ theory of disease: States that some diseases are caused by microorganisms. These
small organisms, too small to see without magnification, invade humans, animals, and other
living hosts
9. Infectious diseases: Caused by pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses,
parasites or fungi.
10. Chronic diseases: long-lasting condition that can be controlled but not cured.
11. Typhus: Caused by Rickettsia bacteria, The causative organism Rickettsia is an obligate
intracellular parasitic bacterium that cannot survive for long outside living cells.
12. Cholera: An infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae
13. Tuberculosis: Is a widespread, infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria,
usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis.[1] Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs, but can also
affect other parts of the body. It is spread through the air when people who have an active TB
infection cough, sneeze, or otherwise transmit respiratory fluids through the air
14. Pertussis: Whooping cough, Initially, symptoms are usually similar to those of the common
cold with a runny nose, fever, and mild cough. This is then followed by weeks of severe
coughing fits. Following a fit of coughing, a high-pitched whoop sound or gasp may occur as the
person breathes in.
15. Mortality: The state of being subject to death
16. Life expectancy: The average period that a person my expect to live
17. Premature mortality rates: Are often used as an overall indicator of population health and
are correlated with other commonly used measures. PMR is an important indicator of the general
health of a population, with high PMR indicating poor health status.
18. Infant mortality: The number of deaths under one year of age occurring among the live
births in a given geographical area during a given year
19. Social capital: The networks of relationships among people who live and work in a
particular society, enabling that society to function effectively
20. Advocacy: The act of pleading for, supporting, or recommending
Questions to Guide Your Learning:
1. Why is it important not to confuse individual variables and collective variables?
Collective variables do not reflect individual variables. GDP may represent certain data while a
majority of people are suffering.
2. What are the two main risk factor models of health and disease? What are the
shortcomings of the risk factor models?
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