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HLTH200 Exam Review 2 (Workout Structure)

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Queen's University
Health Studies
HLTH 200
Melody Torcolacci

Workout Structure  Warm up specific to the activity o Avoid rituals  Should consume 10-20% of work out time Why You Need To Warm Up  Increase core body temperature  Prevent injuries  Increase elasticity of muscles and connective tissue  Release of synovial fluid to lubricate joints  Enhances muscle contraction o Warm muscles move more o More oxygen to the muscles  Blood flow increases  Less fatigue  Speeds up nerve messages o Better control and response time  Reduces perceived exertion o No warm up = quicker fatigue  More lactic acid produced  Improves heart function o Less likely for heart attack Warm Up Structure  Progressive exercises o Intensity gradually increases  Never approach workout intensity o Large muscle mass  Raise core body and muscle temperature o Warm up improves neuromuscular function o Stretch Reflex  Muscle being stretched  Moving too quick = pain = no gain  You want muscles to relax  Contracting = tightening it o Over stretching  Tearing of muscle fibers o Reciprocal innervations  Stretching opposite muscle groups  If one muscle is contracted, the opposite must be relaxed  If this does not occur, it will result in muscle tear  Stretching one muscle increases the efficiency of the opposite o Inverse Myotatic Reflex  PNF stretching  Contracting one muscle relaxes another  Increases body’s rang of motion What Happens When You Stretch  Golgi Tendon Organs (stretch receptors) become desentized  Allows greater stretch, range of motion What to stretch  Stretch muscle  Deep fascia (elastic) o Never Stretch  Tendons  Ligaments  Once stretched, stays stretched Types of Stretches  Free Static o No external loading o Hold position for 6 seconds  15 – 30 seconds in cool down  Passive Static o External force o Allows stretching beyond range of motion  Ballistic o Bouncing o Initiates stretch reflex  Not recommended Part 2 “Stretching”  There is no relationship between static flexibility and dynamic performance  Static stretches held longer than 6 seconds shut down alpha motor neurons o Stretching pulls muscle fibres apart o Reducing ability to apply force o Neurons take 15-20 minutes to reactivate  No stretching needed when.. o Body weight supported activities  Exercise bike o Extensive core temperature o Produces no reduction in injuries  Health Benefits o Improve cardio, balance, coordination, strength, power, flexibility  Cumulative training effect o More likely to pull a muscle in the summer  People neglect warm up in the summer  No such thing as over warming up  Under warming up leads to decreased performance and injury Part 3 – Activity Simulation  Warm up must mimic purpose of training session o By the end of warm up, intensity should be near intensity that will be experienced in work out  Intensity connector o Warm up to work out  Failure to connect warm up intensity to work out intensity  Leads to injury or poor performance  Cool down o Do not suddenly stop o Slowly lower heart and respiration rate o Keep moving to move lactic acid o Want longer duration during stretching (15-30 secs)  Shut down alpha motor neurons  Promote relaxation and regeneration  Goal is to return muscle to its normal resting length  Speeding up recovery  PNF o Muscle energy technique  Contract Relax Technique o Put muscle on stretch for 10-15 sec o Contract muscle isometrically 6-15 sec  Allow muscle to relax  Shake it out  Repeat process  Stretch – contract – relax o Takes muscle through greater range of motion each time  Contract relax contract Technique o After relaxation phase contract opposite muscle o Initiates reciprocal innervation o Repeat stretch 3 times Stretching Guidelines  Warm up prior to stretching  Move slowly and smoothly  Breath normally, accentuate exhalation  Concentrate, feel the stretch  Come out of the stretch slowly and smoothly  Repeat each stretch atleast twice  No pain Factors influencing flexibility  Age o Flexibility increases between 6 -18 years o Stabilizes during late teens and 20’s o Begins to decline, connective tissue loses elasticity and hydration  Gender o Women tend to be more flexible  Muscle Temperature o Warm muscles stretch more easily  Body composition o Too much muscle bulk does not affect range of motion or flexibility  Disease/ injury o Arthritis limits joint range of motion  When inflammation is low maintain motion to prevent joint form freezing up o Don’t stretch if you’ve pulled a muscle o The more elastic your muscles, the smoother your movement  Muscles that do not get worked become tight and shortened, pain o Body needs balance  Muscles in front of the body pull everything forward  If they are shortened, it will result in hunched over posture  To stand up straight the muscles in the back have to be long and strong  require less energy to stay balanced  Tight muscles resist movement  If tight, the will hinder forward movement instead of backward, or vise versa  Stretching tight muscles improves movement efficiency  Trigger points o Knots in the muscle  Latent  Only painful when pressed  Active
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