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HLTH200 Exam Review 3 (Cardio)

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Queen's University
Health Studies
HLTH 200
Melody Torcolacci

Cardio Respiratory Endurance  Ability to perform prolonged, large muscle, dynamic exercise  Moderate to high intensity o Increases in cardiorespiratory endurance is associated with decreased risk of death from all causes Aerobic Fitness  Ability to take in, transport, utilize oxygen Activity Index  Based on regular daily activity, multiply score o 100 = very active lifestyle, high fitness Effects of Aerobic Endurance Training  Respiration o Sense of fatigue associated with breathlessness during exercise o Linked to major functions of respiration o Getting oxygen to the lungs and getting rid of carbon dioxide  Trained individuals  Bigger Breaths  Require fewer breaths to get the same amount of oxygen  Untrained individuals  Shallow breaths  Need more oxygen o Average lung holds 2 – 5 liters of air o Training allows you to inhale more air per breath  Increased efficiency of respiratory muscles  Circulation o Circulatory system – heart, blood, blood vesels  Average blood volume is 5 liters  Training increases blood volume 10- 15%  Heart becomes more efficient  Lower resting heart rate and exercise heart rate o Increases size of heart muscle fibres o Increases volume of the heart, and thickness of the heart o Increases capillary density (more capallaries)  Improve oxygen delivery o Training respiration and circulation becomes more efficient  Health improves  Blood pressure decreases  Blood flow enhanced  Cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood is lowered Endurance Depends Upon  Central Factors o Ability of lungs to delivery oxygen to the blood stream o Hearts capacity to pump blood  Peripheral Factors o Ability of working muscles to extract o Use oxygen  Health focuses on central factors  Longer duration/lower intensity = steady state  High intensity o Intervals needed to develop steady state Health fitness vs. Physical Fitness  Moderate aerobic acitivty produces health benefits  Despite lower fitness gains o Impacts metabolic profile  Metabolic Profile o Better insulin sensitivity o Glucose tolerance o Improved cholesterol despite little weight loss or aerobic capacity  Health standards are lower and are achieved with modest effort  Activity continuum o Sedentary < 2000 steps o Need atleast 10,000 steps and 1 low moderate workout  Approach to cardio o Real health and benefits requires high intensity and intervals  Advantage of high intensity  Significant health beneficial workout in 20 min o Even 10 mins of brisk exercise can trigger metabolic change  Can last an hour o The fitter a person, the more benefits they get  Burn more fat than less fit  Different degrees of speed  Fit goes faster  More gains  More oxygen intake o Health weight and exercise regularly creates health feedback loop  Maintain health glucose and insulin levels  Normalizing insulin levels is the best thing you can do from a health perspective  Longevity  10 min of high intensity exercise  Frequency o 3 – 4 moderate intensity = best return with least risk o 5 thworkout does not add significant fitness th o 5 thworkout increases injury risk o 5 workout only appropriate when weight loss is required  More than 3 workouts = cross training o Different activities  Frequency directly linked to intensity o High intensity = fewer workouts needed  Do not exceed number of hard workouts a week based on level of training  Intensity o Measure of how hard you are working o Measured by heart rate  Training threshold is individual o Sedentary = low threshold  As become fitter, threshold increases o Training Zone Lower Limit  Lowest level of work that is beneficial and where gains will be made o Training Zone Upper limit  Max amount of exercise that will be beneficial, anymore will not benefit health o Relationship between heart rate and VO2 max  Heart rate increases, VO2 max increases o Age adjusted max heart rate  220 – age  Standard deviation plus minus 15 beats  For best accuracy find max heart rate for a specific exercise  Increase progressively until you reach exhaustion  Max heart rate differs with mode (running, bike, etc)  Must test each max heart rate for each piece of equipment  Karvonen Formula – Heart Rate Reserve o More individualized o Factors in initial fitness level  Only use 50% of max heart rate if extremely unfit, or older  Normative training range for health is max heart rate of 60 – 80% Resting Heart Rate  A persons activity level determines resting heart rate  Where to start fitness level o Resting heart rate is GREATER than 85 BPM, use low intensity  High heart rate indicates poor fitness  Training zone would be 50 – 70% o Resting heart rate is LESS than 60 BPM, use higher intensity  Low heart rate indicates superior fitness  Training zone would be 70-90%  Some fit people have naturally high RHR  Some unfit people have naturally low RHR o Default decision is initial activity level o Anywhere in training zone will cause health benefits  Karvonen Formula Training Threshold or Lower Limit: o [(Age adjusted HR – RHR) x 0.6] + RHR  Karvonen Formula Training Threshold or Upper Limit: o (Age adjusted HR – RHR) x 0.8] + RHR Training zone changes as you change  Pulse can be taken at o Carotid – neck  Do not press hard  Do not use thumb, has it’s own pulse o Radial arteries – wrist  Take
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