HLTH 200 – Fitness Assessment
The fitter you are, the long any test of fitness needs to be, for an accurate assessment of fitness. Test must be specific
to the activities you do if they are to provide results with any validity.
Body shape is a good indicator of health risk. The amount of fat and LBM is individual and determined by:
Gender: women have a higher level of body fat (BF)
Age: with age BF increases (BF doesn’t have to increase with age)
Heredity (genetics): endomorphs have a higher % BF than either mesomorphs or ectomorphs. You can’t change your
body build but you can maximize it through exercise and diet.
Metabolism: those with slower metabolisms tend to have a higher % BF. Sluggish metabolism theory – sluggish
metabolism means that fewer calories are needed for normal functioning. With a sluggish metabolism, food is turned
into energy very slowly. 1-2% of people have a sluggish metabolism. Need less calories because they are not being
Metabolism: is based upon 3 different factors:
2. Thyroid function: women have 10x the thyroid issues compared to men. 33% of all women will experience a thyroid
problem in their lifespan.
3. Muscle mass: muscle is more ‘metabolically active’ than fat. A pound of muscle burns 35-50 calories a day. A pound of
fat burns 5-10 calories a day. Regular exercise increases metabolism. Strength training and high intensity aerobics have
the greatest impact on metabolism.
The Fat Cell/Set Point Theory
The size and number of fat cells in the body determines one’s degree of fatness. Obese individuals have 4x the normal
number of fat cells. The fatter you are at any age, the less likely you are to return to normal weight. Keep this in mind
when trying to lose weight. Once a fat cell is created, it exists for life The best way not to become fat is not to produce
fat cells; maintain healthy weight .
Two women, same BW… Woman #1 has normal number of fat cells that are enlarged. Woman #2 has a larger number of
fat cells that are of normal size.
Heredity plays a role, with some people having naturally higher or lower set points. A high fat diet raises the set point.
To change the set point; exercise. Increased intensity, increased metabolism
Essential Body Fat (BF):
BF needed for proper physiological functioning. BF below essential levels is life threatening. for men; _ for women.
Body Fat Percentage: The portion of your body that is fat The lower the body fat, the healthier you are . BF reflection of
Recommended BF% ranges for <30 years of age: 17-25% Women; 12-20%Men. Going lower than the recommended
range is just as unhealthy.
24.5% of Canadians are obese. 62.1% of Canadians are either overweight or obese. Canada is the 4 worst country in the
world for obesity rates. Obesity is associated with more chronic health problems than tobacco. Obesity = 15-20% of the
annual mortality rate. Adults who are fruit and vegetables less than 3 a day were more likely to be obese than those who consumed such foods 5 a day. Your risk of dying from cancer (especially colon) is significantly increased if obese. Obesity
= BW 20% heavier than the ideal BW as determined by height and weight tables.
Death rate for obese men aged 15-69 is higher than normal weight individuals. For every 10% a person is above their
normal weight, life span is 1 year.
The average person gains 1lb of weight a year and loses .05 of LBM. Over 40 years actual fat gain is 60 combined with a
40 LBM loss.
Obesity is catching: A person’s changes of becoming obese increases -
By 57% if they have a friend who becomes obese
By 40% if they have a sibling who becomes obese
By 37% if a spouse becomes obese
Mutual friends > 3x the risk to the other if one becomes obese.
If one of 2 mutual friends becomes obese; chances the other will follow goes up 171%.
-> One’s chances of becoming obese are influenced by family/friends, even if they’re hundreds of miles away. Social
norms appear to play a role in the spread of obesity. The likelihood was strongest for same-sex pairs among brothers, or
among friends of the same gender; which may be why friends and family are more influencial. While overweight people
were especially likely to become obese if their friend or relative did, the same pattern also applied to leaner people.
When someone lost weight and was no longer obese, their friends/family tended to also lose weight.
Use BF% to determine obesity:
Overweight: 10%or more above Ideal BW; body composition is not considered.
Underweight: less than 18.5 BMI
Men: < 21%
Women: <8% Being underweight is as dangerous as being overweight . Being underweight can cause: gastrointestinal problems,
shrinkage of internal organs, disorders of the reproductive system, loss of muscle tissue, damage to the nervous system
Android (apple): fat distribution is focused in the waist or abdomen area, limbs are thin. Most commonly seen in men.
Apples have 2x the risk of coronary heart disease, high BP, diabetes, stroke, and Alzheimer’s as peers. Compared to
people with normal Bw and a low belly measurement, people with normal BW and high belly measurements were 89%
more likely to have dimentia. The risk increased among overweight and obese people with high belly measurements.
Gynoid (pear): fat concentration is usually in the hips and thighs. Most common in women. The activity of the enzymes
that store fat in women’s thighs and hips is very high compared to other fat storage areas; while the activity of the
enzymes that release the fat is low.
The inverted triangle: fat concentration is usually in the chest . More common in men
The hourglass: fat concentration tends to be in the chest and hips. More common in women
The Waist-to-hip ratio: belly fat is a better
measure of health than BMI. Abdominal obesity
could be a greater risk factor than overall