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What is Nutrition (week 1).docx

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Health Studies
HLTH 230
Jeffery Lalonde

What is Nutrition  The science of foods and nutrients and other substances they contain  Their actions within the body, including ingestion, digestion, absorption, transport, excretion  Social, economical, cultural, and physiological implications of food and eating What is Food  Products derives from plants or animals that can be taken into the body to produce energy and nutrients for the maintenance of life and growth and repair of tissues  Certain food choices depend on: o Preferences o Habit o Ethnic heritage o Social interactions o Emotions o Availability/convenience o Nutrition, health benefits Diet  The food and beverages a person eats and drinks Nutrients  Chemical substances obtained from food and used in the body to provide energy  Support growth, regulating agents  Maintenance and repair of body tissues o Body contains, carbohydrates, protein, and minerals  Classes of nutrients o Carbohydrates o Lipids (fats) o Proteins o Vitamins o Minerals o Water  Macronutrients o Required in large amounts per day (grams)  Micronutrients o Required in small amounts (milligrams)  Essential Nutrients o Nutrients a person must obtain from food because the body cannot make enough on its own  Inorganic Nutrients o Nutrients that contain no carbon o Eg water and miners  Organic Nutrients o Nutrients that contain carbon or bonds with carbon  Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins  Energy yielding nutrients o Nutrients that can be broken down to provide energy to te body  Carbohydrates, lipids, protein  Phytochemicals o Non nutrient compounds found in plant derived foods that have biological activity in the body  Functional foods o Foods that contain physiologically active compounds that provide health benefits beyond nutrients  Eg yogurt  Nutraceutical o Product isolated or purified from foods o Physiological benefit o Provide protection against disease  Eg fish oil pills Inorganic Organic Macronutr. Micronutr. Minerals Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Vitamins Water Protein Protein Minerals Lipids Lipids Vitamins Water Non-Energy Energy Yield Minerals Carbohydrates Water Protein Vitamins Lipids Energy yielding Nutrients  Energy available from foods:  Carbohydrate  4 kcal/g  Protein  4 kcal/g  Fat  9 kcal/g  Alcohol  7 kcal/g  •For example: 1 slice of bread with peanut butter  • 16 g carb x 4 kcal/gram = 64 kcal  • 7 g protein x 4 kcal/gram = 28 kcal  • 9 g of fat x 9 kcal/gram = 81 kcal  173 kcal Energy Density  Measure of the energy food proves relative to the weight of the food o Food with high energy density provides more energy per gram  Calories o Unit by which energy is measured o 1000 calories = 1 kilacalorie  Breaking bonds release energy  Some of the energy is released as eat  Some of the energy is used to send electrical impulses to the brain to move muscles  Energy can be stored o If energy nutrients are not used as fuel they can be stored as fat o Carbs can be stores as glycogen o Energy in = Energy out = weight stays the same o Energy in is more than energy out = weight gain o Energy out is more than energy in = weight loss  Protein o Provides energy o Structural building blocks o Fuel source, also needs carbohydrates and fat Nutrition Research  Cohort o Following groups of subjects over time  Cross Sectional o Population is chosen and samples are taken at one period in time  Case Control o Collects samples with a condition (case) and a sample without condition (case)  Experimental Studies o Laboratory based animal studies o Laboratory based in vitro studies  Studying the effects of a variable on a cell, tissue, or molecule from another living organism o Clinical trials  Subjects adopt new behaviour to see if it promotes or prevents disease  Eg subjects start exercising o Double blind randomized clinical control trials  Neither participant or researcher are aware of who is getting treatment  Analyzing Research o Journals o Correlations vs. causes o Positive and negative correlation Dietary Reference Intake (DRI)
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