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Minerals in the Body (week 10).docx

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Queen's University
Health Studies
HLTH 230
Jeffery Lalonde

Minerals in the Body (CC,PP,SS,M)  Calcium – 1150g  Phosphorous – 600g  Potassium – 210g  Sulfur- 150g  Sodium- 90g  Chloride – 90g  Magnesium – 30g Trace Minerals in the Body (M,ZINCS)  Iron 2.4 g  Zinc 2.0 g  Copper 0.09 g  Manganese 0.02 g  Iodine 0.02 g  Selenium 0.02 g Minerals  Inorganic elements  Retain chemical identity and remain in the body until they are excreted  Minerals and Cooking o Cannot be destroyed by heat, acid, mixing, or air o They can leach into cooking water Body’s Handling of Minerals  Differs between minerals o Potassium is easily absorbed, transported freely and excreted by the kidneys o Calcium requires a carrier for transportation and absorption  Some minerals can be toxic in high levels  Bioavailability in Food o Can bind and combine with nutrients, absorption is prevented  Phytates – legumes and grains  Oxylates  Rhubarb and spinach o Nutrient Interactions  Can affect absorption, metabolism, excretion  Sodium and calcium have interactions when sodium intake is high, causing both to be excreted  Phosphorous binds magnesium in the GI tract  Magnesium absorption is limited when phosphate intake is high  Roles of Minerals o Fluid balance o Bone health Sodium  Taste is appealing o Enhances other flavours, suppresses bitter flavours  Foods provide more than the body requires  Roles in the body o Cation of extracellular fluid  Regulator of volume of fluid o Helps maintain acid base balance o Assists in nerve impulse and muscle contraction  Adequate Intake – 1500mg o Upper intake - 2300mg  3400mg day  Over 80% of men and women above UL o Low sodium  Less than 140mg per serving  Hypertension o Salt (NaCl) has greater effect on blood pressure  More than either sodium or chloride on their own o Salt sensitivity  Response to high salt intake  Increase in blood pressure  Low salt intake – low blood pressure o Blood pressure increases in response to excess salt for those  With hypertension  People over 40  DASH – Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension o Fruits and vegetables – potassium rich o Low fat milk products – potassium rich o Include whole grains, nuts, poultry, fish o Reduction of sodium, processed meats, sweets and sugars  Up to 75% of sodium in diet comes from added salt by manufacturers  Processed meats, salted snacks, cheese, canned soup  Sodium and Osteoporosis o High sodium is associated with calcium excretion  Competition between sodium and calcium  Sodium Deficiency o Not from adequate intake o Blood sodium may drop with excess sweating, vomiting, diarrhea  Endurance athletes can lost salt and drink so much water  Causes hyponatremic  Low sodium in the blood  Heachache, confusion, seizure, coma  Sodium Toxicity o High blood pressure o Edema  Sodium causes water retention o Prolonged excessive sodium can contribute to hypertension Chloride  Essential nutrient  Roles o Major anion of extracellular fluid  Maintains fluid balance o Moves freely across membranes o Part of HCL  Acid in the stomach  Deficiency and Toxicity o Diet rarely lacks chloride o Heavy sweating, diarrhea, vomiting, can lead to losses o High blood chloride may occur with dehydration o Toxicity symptoms  Vomiting  Sources o Sat, processed foods, moderate amount in milk and eggs Potassium  Body’s principle cation inside the cell o Major role in fluid and electrolyte balance  Nerve impulses and muscle contractions require sodium and potassium pump o Potassium is important to the heart beat  Foods o Found in fresh fruits and vegetables o Whole foods  Deficiency o Blood pressure  Low potassium intake raises blood pressure  High intake can help prevent correct hypertension o Deficiency occurs in electrolyte imbalance  Vomiting, diarrhea  Steroids, diuretics, laxatives o Symptoms  Increased blood pressure  Irregular heart beat  Muscular weakness  Glucose intolerance  Need potassium to counter sodium  Make glucose tolerable  Pump the heart  Toxicity o Can result from supplements and salt substitutes o If potassium is injected directly into the vein it can stop the heart  Symptoms o Muscular weakness, vomiting Calcium  The most abundant mineral in the body  Roles o Mineralization of bones and teeth o Involved in muscle contraction o Involved in nerve function, blood clotting, blood pressure  Deficiency o Stunted growth o Bone loss  Osteoporosis  Toxicity o Causes constipation o Increased risk of urinary stones and kidney dysfunction o Interference with absorption of other minerals  Sources o Milk products o Fish with bones o Tofu o Green and legumes Phosphorus  Second most abundant mineral in the body  Roles o 85% of it is found combined with calcium in bones and teeth o Phosphoric acid  Part of buffer system in cells o Part of DNA and RNA  Necessary for all growth o Necessary for activation of many enzymes and B vitamins o Phospholipids  Have a phosphate group  Sources o Meat, milk, fish, poultry, eggs o Animal sources  Diet with enough protein is generally adequate in phosphate Magnesium  Small amount in the body o ½ of body’s magnesium is in the bones o Majority of remaining is in muscles and soft tissues o 1% is in extracellular fluid  Sources o Legumes, nuts, seeds, whole grains, dark vegetables, seafood o Chocolate, cocoa  Roles o Acts as a catalyst  Facilitates reactions o Forms part of protein making machinery o Necessary for energy metabolism o Bone health o Acts with calcium in muscle contraction and blood clotting o Supports immune system o Prevents cavities by holding calcium to teeth  Toxicity o Rare but can be fatal o Only occurs with supplements or salts  Diarrhea, alkalosis, dehydration  Deficiency o Symptoms are rare o Can occur in alcohol abuse, protein malnutrition, kidney disorders, vomiting and diarrhea o May cause central nervous system activity, hallucinations Sulfate  Occurs in essential nutrients o Thiamin, amino acids, methionine, cysteine  Responsible for shaping proteins o Sulfur bonds  No recommendations for intake or toxicity  Body’s needs are met with protein intake Trace Minerals  Only required in the body in minuscule quantities  Trace mineral content in foods depends on o Soil and water composition o Food processing  Bioavailability affected by many body factors Iron  Switches between 2 ionic states o Ferrous ++ o Ferric +++  Iron is required by enzymes involved in making amino acids, collagen, hormones, and neurotransmitters  Forms part of the electron carrier in the electron transport chain o All of these states allow it to participate as a cofactor to enzymes in oxidation reduction reactions  Most of the body’s iron is found in 2 proteins o Hemoglobin  Red blood cells o Myoglobin  Muscle cells  Oxygen holding protein in muscle cells o Iron helps to accept, carry, release oxygen in both cells  Absorption and Metabolism o Iron balance in the body is maintained primarily through absorption  Not readily excreted  Absorption fluctuates  More iron is absorbed when stores are empty  Less iron is absorbed when stores are full  Ferritin o Iron storage protein  Mucosal Ferritin  Receives iron from food and stores it in mucuosal cells o When iron is needed:  Ferritin releases stored iron to transferrinn  Mucosal transferrin transfers iron to blood transferrinn  Blood transferrinn transports iron to the rest of the body  Ferritin -> Transferrinn  Mucosal Transferrinn -> Blood Transferrin  Blood Transferrin -> iron to the body  If iron is not needed by the body it is carried out when intestinal cells are shed  Every 3-5 days  Heme iron o Found only in foods derived from the FLESH of animals o Only a small amount of dietary iron  Nonheme Iron o Animal and plant derived foods o Accounts for majority of dietary iron  Absorption ENHANCING Factors o MFP Factor  Peptide found in meat, fish, poultry  Promotes absorption of non heme iron from foods in the same meal o Vitamin C  Enhances non heme iron absorption at the same meal  Keep iron in reduced Ferrous form  More easily absorbed  Ferric iron cannot be absorbed without enhancers o Other Acids (citric, lactic acid, HCL) o Sugars (fructose)  Can enhance non heme iron absorption  Absorption INHIBITING Factors o Some dietary factors bind nonheme iron  Inhibits their absorption  Phytates  Legumes, grains, rice  Vegetable proteins  Soybeans, legumes, nuts  Polyphenols  Acid, coffee, tea,  Calcium  In milk  The most significant factors are o MFP (enhance) o Vitamin C (enhance) o Phytates (inhibit)  Individual Variation o 18% absorption from mixed diet o 10% from vegetarian diet o Depends on health, life stage, iron status o Iron absorption can be low as 2% for someone with GI disease o Up to 35% in rapidly growing children  Iron Transport and Storage o Blood transferrinn delivers iron to tissues including bone marrow  Large quantities are used in making red blood cells o Extra iron is stored in ferritin,  Can be stored in the liver, but also bone marrow and spleen o When iron concentrations are high, ferritin is converted into storage protein hemosiderin in the liver  Hemosiderin releases iron more slowly than ferritin  Sto
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