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Queen's University
Microbiology and Immunology
MICR 270

MICRO 70 EXAM NOTES (Super Condensed) Two distinct components to the immune system: Innate Immune System • Non-specific – Does not require prior exposure to invading pathogens o External nonspecific response: Areas of the body exposed to the outside environment o Internal nonspecific response: Areas of the body not exposed to the outside environment • ‘First line of defense’ in the immune system Consists of three distinct barriers: 1. Physical barriers: Anything that can contact and interact with invaders (tears, mucous) 2. Cellular barriers: Use of innate cells for phagocytosis Phagocytosis: 3 key cells involved o Neutrophils: First cell responders from blood o Early phagocytosis – eliminates pathogens quickly o Can initiate inflammatory response o Macrophages/ monocytes: enter tissues to become macrophages – perform phagocytosis and release cytokines – simulate inflammation and recruit other immune cells o Dendritic cells: initiation of adaptive immune response a. Phagocytosis is a specific form of endocytosis, engulf invaders i. Neutrophils: Most common leukocyte in mammals blood 1. Short-lived and do not reside in tissue before infection 2. 12 hours in blood, recruitment by resident macrophages and live for 1-3 days ii. Macrophages: Kills microorganisms through engulfing 1. Involved in tissue repair and presents antigens to adaptive immune system 2. Monocytes = in circulatory system 3. Can travel outside of circulatory system via cell membrane and blood vessels iii. Dendritic cells: Contact with external environment 1. Both innate and adaptive Immune system a. Use of MHC markers for Helper T cell recognition for adaptive response iv. Natural Killer (NK) cells: Lyse cells (cell death from bursting) 1. Lysed cells use chemical agents (formation of pores on cell) 2. NOT PHAGOCYTIC 3. Humoral barriers: Complement proteins and cytokines a. Cytokines: chemical mediators for immune cell interactions i. Major role in cell-to-cell communication 1. Autocrine and paracrine effects a. Autocrine: substance effects by same cells b. Paracrine: substance effects on nearby cells Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) • Display on surface of cells – allows specific targeting of cells • Innate and adaptive immune system Inflammation: occurs to localize and eliminate invading pathogens – helps reduce spread and remove damaged tissues o Alteration of blood flow to injured area o Influx of phagocytic and other immune cells o Removal of foreign antigens o Healing of damaged tissues Signs of inflammation: o Calor – heat o Functio laesa – loss of function o Dolar – Pain o Tumour- Swelling o Rubor- redness Adaptive Immune system Creation of memory cells for reoccurring invaders Two major components of adaptive IS: Humoral – B cell Immunity: o B cells and antibodies Cellular (Cell-mediated) – T cell immunity: o T cells o CD4 T cells o CD8 T cells o Y8 T cells o Natural Killer T cells (NS T cells) B cell T cell Function Antibody factory Directly kill infected cells Help immune response Mature BONE MARROW Thymus Surface Receptor B-cell receptor (BCR) T-cell receptor (TCR) Response Humoral Cell-mediated Humoral Immunity Cell-mediated Immunity o B cells – antibody-mediated response o T cell action in IR o Production of antibodies specific to o Naïve cytotoxic T cells active Hia T 2 antigen cells – differentiate into mature o Immunoglobulins – binds to antigen cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and neutralizes o T lymphocytes recognize and eliminate antigens from MHC on cell surface 2 Primary Lymphoid Organs Secondary Lymphoid Organs • Origin of Lymphoid progenitor • Interaction of lymphocytes with cells and site of maturation another • Tissue/ Organs: Thymus and Bone • Tissue/ Organs: Spleen, Lymph Marrow nodes, and mucosal associated • Function: B and T cell maturation lymphoid tissue occurs in this organ • Function: matured lymphocytes interact with trapped antigens and become activated effector cells • Thymus: T cells mature • Bone Marrow: organ of all progenitor cells, B cells mature o Progenitor cell: stem cells that differentiate from one or more kind of cell ▪ Cannot be divided and reproduced indefinitely ▪ Early descendants of hematopoietic stem cell • Spleen: filters blood and eliminates antigens • Lymph nodes: filters lymph and eliminates antigens o ANTIBODY: CIRCULATING PROTEIN ▪ Generated through B cells o ANTIGEN: Foreign protein that induces an immune response • Major function: preserve and protect integrity of body from environment agents such as microbes or chemicals o Two branches of immune responses ▪ Adaptive and Innate immune system • Adaptive immunity: subdivided into two more components o Humoral immunity: Antibody mediated o Cell-mediated immunity: T cell-mediate Self/ Nonse
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