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[PATH 310] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (95 pages long)


Department
Pathology and Molecular Medicine
Course Code
PATH 310
Professor
Christine Hough
Study Guide
Final

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Queen's
PATH 310
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Lecture 1. Hemostasis
Hemostasis: The stopping of a flow of blood
This is the process which stops bleeding after injury to a blood vessel
Normally, our bodies want to make sure that the blood that flows through our
blood vessels stays in our bodies. If we have an injury that allows our blood to
leak out of the blood vessel and out of our body, we want to make sure we can
stop that. We do this through a process called hemostasis.
It’s through heostasis that we reate a lot, ad the lot allows the leeding to
stop.
It stabilizes the injury in the blood vessel, and gives the blood vessel time to heal.
Hemostasis vs. Thrombosis
Hemostasis is a normal process that stops bleeding in an injured vessel through
the formation of a hemostatic plug
o It is rapid, controlled, site specific, and removed when no longer needed
Thrombosis is a pathological process with formation of a blood clot (thrombus)
in an uninjured vessel
o It is a cause of sudden death
Components of Blood
4-6 liters
Erythrocytes: red blood cells that carry oxygen around the body
Leukocytes: white blood cells to fight invaders
Platelets: carry sacs or granules that carry molecules necessary for hemostasis
Plasma: has lots of different proteins, including coagulation factors
Coagulation
Also known as clotting
The process by which blood changes from a liquid to a solid or semi-solid state,
forming a blood clot
Blood Vessels
Vessel wall
Fibroblasts
Smooth muscle cells
Endothelial cells: lines the interior surface of blood vessels,
allows blood to flow smoothly, communicates with blood
during injury; it regulates vascular tone, vascular smooth
muscle cell proliferation, transendothelial leukocyte
migration, thrombosis and thrombolysis
Lumen: hollow passageway through which blood flows
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Vascular Endothelium Functions
1. The monolayer of endothelial cells separates blood from prothrombotic
components
o The prothrombotic components are tissue factor, von Willebrand factor,
and collagen
2. Plays an important role in hemostasis
3. Plays an important role in thrombolysis (as well as thrombosis)
Components of Hemostatic System
Vascular endothelium
Platelets
Coagulation System
Fibrinolytic System
Keeping blood in a fluid state depends on:
Intact vascular endothelium: no injury to blood vessel
Platelets in a quiescent state: keeping platelets inactive
Regulation of coagulation: regulation of clotting
Regulation of fibrinolysis: breakdown of fibrin in blood clots to prevent blood
clots from growing and becoming problematic
Resting Endothelium
In a healthy blood vessel, our endothelium is secreting:
o Nitric oxide and prostacyclin: vasodilators to ensure good blood flow,
inhibits platelets from sticking to endothelial cells
o Thrombomodulin: anticoagulant protein that, in cooperation with protein
C and thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor, serves to maintain the
endothelial microenvironment in an anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant
state
o t-PA + UK: plasminogen activator and urokinase helps to break down
fibrin clots
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