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Anarchy and Government Exam Notes

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PHIL 153
Jim Molos

PART ONE: ANARCHY AND GOVERNMENT (10 marks) 1. According to Thomas Hobbes, why are individuals mutually vulnerable in the state of nature, and what are the implications of our mutual vulnerability for the social contract? - State of nature o Natural state and natural condition o Individuals lead lives without any political or legal authority o Social but not apolitical - Men are equal o Mutual vulnerability - Each person believes he is more superior than others o Diversity of opinions = pluralism o Another source of conflict - Scarcity of valuable and desired goods o Require same things to lead the good life o Competition and another source of conflict - Expectation of equal success - More vulnerable as we are fighting against others (offensive rather than defensive) - Incentive to overcome mutual vulnerability by seeking power - MUTUAL VULNERABILITY, MODERATE SCARCITY, PRUDENTIAL INCENTIVES - Constant state of war o Competition, distrust, glory o Constant possibility for conflict o “the life of man is solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short” o Instable and need to secure survival - Reasons or prudence dictates each individual to seek peace and end state of war o Through social contract o Establish common wealth and sovereign o Morality not enough because natural disposition to favour ourselves and morality has no real consequences o People
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