PHIL 115 Study Guide - Final Guide: Reductio Ad Absurdum, Existence Precedes Essence, Gaunilo Of Marmoutiers

117 views5 pages
Published on 20 Apr 2013
School
Queen's University
Department
Philosophy
Course
PHIL 115
Ontological Argument
-All objective knowledge is dead; we haven't killed God, we have killed objectivity
-World without objective knowledge = no morality, horrible way of life, animalistic
-Anselm: atheists are fools
-Reductio ad absurdum: reduce somebody's argument to something stupid
-Contingent existence vs. necessary existence
-Descartes reworks Anselm's argument, Kant challenges it, and Gaunilo creates a reductio ad absurdum
Sartre
-To say that one must act a certain way because of human nature is to act in bad faith, not authentically
-Human essence is in being as becoming
-Condemned to freedom; weighty responsibility
-We must not only choose, but choose well
-Choosing well = choosing the right choice about what we choose to be/become
-Meaningful choice = justifiable to oneself and others, holds oneself accountable
-A meaningful choice is not just what I think is right for me at this moment
-Human condition characterized as anguish, abandonment, and despair
-Existence precedes essence
-A human is nothing but what he makes of himself
-Existentialism recognizes our capacity for transcendence
-Anguish does not prevent action, we still choose and act
-No a priori morality with existentialism
-One cannot blame anyone or anything for one's choices, either within or outside oneself
-Choosing morality is constructing a work of art; it isn't obvious what makes it great until it is done
-In our choices we choose for all humanity, which puts us in a position to praise or condemn others; we
may not know all facts about others, therefore we cannot make accurate judgements
-4 criticisms: dwell in quietism, depicts humans as mean and ignores beauty, considers humans in
isolation and ignores solidarity, and denies the reality of human affairs by allowing anything
Frondizi
-The self is a complex combination of parts
-We can account for the unity of the self without assuming that there is anything constant (“atomistic
core”)
-Gestalt: whole is more than the sum of its parts
-Wool is made of many fibres and not one long thread, yet we see a piece of wool as one unified thing
-It is a unified thing out of which even more complex unified things (sweaters) can be made
-Unity of the self is neither substantial nor atomistic
-Organic unity
-Sweater = made of wool, woollen thread = made of fibre
-2 dimensions of complexity: transversal and horizontal
-Transversal = complexity of a person's identity at one moment, “time slice”
-Time slices are composed of bundles of three kinds of experiences: intellectual, emotive, volitive
-Intellectual = perceptions, images, ideas
-Emotive = affect, how we feel
-Volitive = will, what one is inclined to do/not do
-Each kind of experience is related to the other two
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 5 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
-Horizontal complexity cannot be broken up into discrete parts or moments because the past structures
the future in psychological time
-Current experience is tied to the past & shaped by an anticipated future
-Self is made up of experiences but not equivalent to their sum
-Our self is a sweater made from the knitting of a long piece of wool, which is in turn made up of
shorter, twisted fibres
-Knitting = looping forwards and backwards through our psychological experience of time
-The knitting gets tighter and looser, much like the unevenness of our experience of time
-Structural unity is a function of the interrelations and tensions between parts
-Gestalt allows for a permanent and mutable self
-Both immanent in and transcends its experiences, and both a unity and multiplicity
-Unity = structure, multiplicity = various aspects
Buddhism & Descartes
-From the Zen Buddhist tradition
-Pra = being born, Jna = to know
-Vi = separation/differentiation, Jnana = to know
-Sanskrit terms
-Vijnana analyses reality into knowing subject and known objectivity
-Analysis = to loosen, unravel, investigate, dissect
-Prajna = intuitive pure knowledge, grasps reality in its “oneness”
-Samadhi = non-dualistic state of consciousness; single pointed concentration
-Satori = enlightenment, waking up
-Buddhists and Descartes are both interested in producing a method that could 100% distinguish
between knowledge of reality and uncertain beliefs/dreams
Buddhism & Ethics
-Four noble truths: suffering, origins of suffering, cessation of suffering, path leading to cessation of
suffering
-Dukkha = truth of suffering
-Three categories: ordinary suffering, suffering caused by impermanence, suffering associated with
identity/conditioned states
-True origins of suffering/3 poisons: craving conditioned by ignorance, attachment, and aversion
-True ending of suffering = liberation from cravings
-Steps of path to cessation (“8-fold path”):
-Right View (understanding noble truths)
-Right Intention (good will, non harmful)
-Right Speech (kind, no slander)
-Right Action (peaceful)
-Right Livelihood (support consistent with path)
-Right Effort (towards virtuous states of mind)
-Right Mindfulness (focused contemplation)
-Right Concentration (Samadhi)
-Requires developing compassion for others and wisdom about ultimate emptiness of selves
-Ethics depend on knowledge of the nature of suffering and desire to liberate oneself from suffering
-First steps focused on liberation from suffering and compassion/love, final steps are mental trainings
which depends on the previous steps
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 5 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

All objective knowledge is dead; we haven"t killed god, we have killed objectivity. World without objective knowledge = no morality, horrible way of life, animalistic. Reductio ad absurdum: reduce somebody"s argument to something stupid. Descartes reworks anselm"s argument, kant challenges it, and gaunilo creates a reductio ad absurdum. To say that one must act a certain way because of human nature is to act in bad faith, not authentically. We must not only choose, but choose well. Choosing well = choosing the right choice about what we choose to be/become. Meaningful choice = justifiable to oneself and others, holds oneself accountable. A meaningful choice is not just what i think is right for me at this moment. Human condition characterized as anguish, abandonment, and despair. A human is nothing but what he makes of himself. Anguish does not prevent action, we still choose and act. One cannot blame anyone or anything for one"s choices, either within or outside oneself.

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

YearlyMost Popular
75% OFF
$9.98/m
Monthly
$39.98/m
Single doc
$39.98

or

You will be charged $119.76 upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.