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PHGY 170 Final: short answer questions

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Queen's University
PHGY 170
Christopher Andrew Ward

1. Explain Cell Theory. (3 points) 2. Why are water and carbon important for supporting life? (2 points) 3. What are the different carbohydrates? What are the differences between them? (4 points) 4. What does it mean by saying that plasma membranes are semi-permeable? (2 points) 1. Identify and describe the functions of the four major subcomponents of the nucleus (4 points) 2. Label the numbered components of a DNA double-helix, including the parts of the nucleotide and the hydrogen and phosphodiester bonds. (4 points) See Diagram 2.2 below 3. Explain the differences and compression levels between the five levels of DNA packaging. (5 points) 4. Label and describe the function of the different numbered parts of the DNA replication complex. (3 points) See Diagram 2.4 below 5. What happens if there is a sequence change to DNA? What are two methods the cell uses to fix DNA? (2 points) 1. Describe the functions of the smooth and rough Endoplasmic Reticulum. (4 points) 2. Explain the steps required to transcribe DNA into RNA. (3 points) 3. Describe the purposes for the three types of post-transcriptional modifications to messenger RNA. (3 points) 4. Explain the steps of RNA translation to protein. (3 points) 5. Describe the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of proteins. (4 points) 6. Identify the impact of mutations on proteins and cell function. (2 marks) 1. Explain the role of the Golgi apparatus in the endomembrane system. (4 points) 2. Describe how the ER and Golgi apparatus help fold and modify proteins and deliver them to their final destination. (4 points) 3. Explain how the cell transports cargo out of and into the cell. (4 points) 4. Describe how the cell degrades damaged proteins and digests proteins, sugars, and lipids. (4 points) 5. What is the importance of having and inner and outer membrane for ATP synthesis? (2 points) 6. Briefly describe glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. Which process generates the most ATP when there is an excess of oxygen? (4 points) 7. Why is less ATP produced under anaerobic conditions? (2 points) 8. Do proteins, carbohydrates or fats store more energy? Provide a rationale to support your answer. (2 points) 9. ATP is highly reactive but can be stored as phosphocreatine. What are the advantages of having this pool of ATP storage? (2 points) 10.Describe the st
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