PHGY 210 Study Guide - Summer 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Synapse, Speed, Peripheral Nervous System

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PHGY 210
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018
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Physiology Week 1-Homeostasis and neuronal biology
Physiology:
Comes from Greek: Physio=nature and logica=study. It is essentially the chemistry and physics
of life.
Internal Environment:
Extracellular (ECEF) and intracellular fluid (ICF)
o ECF surrounds cells
o Pass through ECF to access ICF
o If you want to go into cell, it needs to go through the ECF to get to the ICF
Chemistry of life
o Makes sure proteins inside and outside cell are happy.
o Cells need specific and stable environment
o Proteins need correct temperature, pH, osmolality.
o These all influence the way proteins work.
o To maintain stable environment, cells and tissues use concept called
homeostasis.
Homeostasis:
The maintenance of constant internal environment.
Homeostasis and feedback control
o Set point: desired value of controlled variable
o Sensor: Detects change between environmental change and that variable
o Integrator: Compares variable to set point
o Effector: Opposes change, keeps it constant. Keeps intercellular space relatively
constant.
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Negative Feedback Positive Feedback
37 degrees
Celsius
Body temperature
thermoreceptor
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Document Summary

It is essentially the chemistry and physics of life. Internal environment: extracellular (ecef) and intracellular fluid (icf, ecf surrounds cells, pass through ecf to access icf. Homeostasis: the maintenance of constant internal environment, homeostasis and feedback control, set point: desired value of controlled variable, sensor: detects change between environmental change and that variable. Integrator: compares variable to set point: effector: opposes change, keeps it constant. Key to homeostasis: effector opposes change to set point (bp, temp, po2). They are all factors that are easily measured in the extracellular space. Most of them are negative feedback, loop, a stimulus, a response, and then something opposed it. Neurons action potentials, very quickly goes out of control, and there is something that shuts this off, different in channels. Birth: babies head hits the cervix, oxytocin is released, causes uterus to contract. Add picture form slide 5 of lecture notes.

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