State, Society, International Community
State = the highest authority in society, makes a society sovereign
State = government because state includes not just political but judicial,
bureaucratic, police, military and security organizations
State = civil society civil society is the link between state and the individual through
non-governmental institutions/interest groups (private)
politics can be argued to be in all human activity
➔“the personal is the political”
➔governance > government as boundaries can be drawn wider
Non-human relations can also be political:
● eg. Animals Rights
1. animals experience enjoyment as well as pain and suffering
2. animals are innocent
3. good treatment of animals helps create culture where abuse if not normalised
● eg. Ecology and Environmentalism
Often there is confusion between politics as an arena and politics as a process.
➔“the distribution, exercise, and consequences of power” is the political aspect (Hayes
What Kind of Activity Qualifies as Political?
Politics = a way to resolve conflict without resorting to violence, coercion etc.
➔politics by “other means” (Carl von Clausewitz)
Political System = any persistent pattern of human relationship that involves control,
influence, power, authority (Dahl, 1991)
where/when/why should we
● what something is not what it
ought to be
meaning of concepts used
they are used
put aside in the 20th century
but came back in the late
“value free” comparative
a mix of empirical and
Positivism: based on the empirical and semantic methods. a philosophical system
that sees the scientific (“positive”) stage of evolution as the last of three stages.