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Politics Exam Notes.docx

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Political Studies
POLS 110
Kim Richard Nossal

Politics Exam Notes Governance Governance: the process of decision-making, regulation and enforcement Government: the institutions that human beings have creased to undertake the process of governance, “the state” Governance without government= revel groups Stateless societies= no continuous organization, no institutionalization, no codification of rules, no monopoly on use of force, no classes, no separation of governors from governed Functions of the state: - Define community - Conduct relations with the others - Maintain internal order - Socially and politically reproduce itself with each generation - Engage in economic redistribution - Establish and maintain community infrastructure Supreme political authority: who is entitled to command and who is obligated to obey - Nwst (Egyptian) - Basileus (Mycenean) - Archon (Athenian) - Imperator (Roman) - Pontifex Maximum (Roman) - Consul (Roman) - Oba (West African) - With the emergence of supreme political authority came sovereignty - Idea of supreme authority not well articulated Sovereignty Sovereignty: the ability to make decisions independently Sovereignty emerged in Europe (1576), grew out of the contradictions of the feudal way or organizing political authority Religious, economic, military and intellectual changes produce radical shift in beliefs and practices. Religious- clashes between pope and local authorities, no fear, Protestantism Economic- rise of trade and urban areas Military- new weapons, feudal fortresses no longer safe Intellectual- “rebirth” of classical Roman and Greek ideas about the world (Renaissance), authority is not divine, printing press Jean Bodin- “Majesty is supreme and legally unbound power over citizens and subject peoples” The Struggle for sovereignty started with the defenestration of Prague (May 1618) to the Peace of Westphalia (October 1647). Peace of Westphalia= 2 treaties - Recognized sovereignty of princes in Holy Roman Empire - Recognized sovereignty of Switzerland and United Provinces of the Netherlands - Institutionalized the idea that rules should be supreme in their own domain Since 1648, sovereignty has become the organizing principle of world politics - Right to exercise supreme political authority within one’s territory - One does not have sovereignty unless it is recognized by others Theory of Sovereignty - Supreme political authority in a given territory is indivisible - All people within that territory are obligated to obey that one supreme political authority - All other sovereigns will recognize the claim to sovereignty and respect it Extraterritoriality: the assertion of one’s authority outside of one’s own territory doesn’t work Federalism Dividing political authority: unitary, confederal and federal systems (variants on relationships between a central government and other lower levels of government) Assumptions of federalism: - Necessary to have two sets of courts, one for national, the other for constituent unites - Necessary to have a procedure for amending the constitution - Citizens must be allowed to express loyalty to more than one levels of government - Secession to be made difficult in theory, impossible in practice - Most important assumption: all players in the system must be committed to power sharing. Federalism cannot work unless there is a willingness to share power. Dissolution, expulsion, secession - Federation can dissolve. You can expel a member of a federation. - Dissolution: Federation of West Indies, USA, Czechoslovakia - Expulsion: Singapore from Malaysia - Secession: Norway from Sweden, Montenegro from State Union of Serbia - WHY DOES WAR SO FREQUENTLY ACCOMPANY SECESSION? Constitutional Problems with Federalism - Division of power - Special powers - Verbal imprecision - Elastic causes - Amending the constitution Attractions of federalism - Allows for the consensual merging of independent units - Allows for the protection of local traditions - Allows for the maintenance of separate local, regional and national identity - Allows for the governance to be more local and thus more sensitive to local conditions Three rule functions: make (legislative), implementing (executive) and adjudication (judicial) Dividing Sovereignty History of parliamentary systems - Anglo-Saxon roots of constraining the power of the king. Moots (meetings of the Anglo-Saxons decide questions of war and peace. The witenagemot- 100 nobles acting as advisers to the king - Norman Conquest, 1066 o Magna Carta, 1215: feudal assembly o First Parliament summoned by Edward I, 1295 - Model Parliament, 1295: prelates, magnates, 2 knights from each country, 2 burgesses from each town and clergy - Limits on taxing powers of the king, 1322 - Separation of houses, 1340s (commons and lords temporal and spiritual) Origins of the structure of contemporary parliamentary governance - Privy council - Until 1688, not intimately linked to the legislature - After 1688, the advisers to the Crown had to have the confidence of the House of Commons Emergence of cabinet government that fuses supreme political authority, linking the Crown, the executive (PM and Cabinet), the legislature and the judiciary. Struggles against absolutism - Narrowing the Royal Prerogative - Case of Prohibitions, 1607 - Case of Proclamations, 1611 - Civil War - English Civil War, 1642-51 - Charles 1 and Parliament - Eleven years tyranny, 1629-40 - Short Parliament, 13 May-5 May 1640 - Long Parliament 1640-48 - Roundheads vs. Cavaliers - Execution of Charles 1, 1649 - Commonwealth, 1649-60 And its consequences - Conflict between Charles 2 and Parliament 1660-85 - Conflict between James 2 and Parliament, 1685-88 - Birth of James Catholic son, June 1688 - Invasion by William 3 of Orange, November, abdication of James - Glorious Revolution, 1688 - Bill of Rights, 1689 Fusing and Separating: the UK Cabinet government fuses supreme political authority, separates the position of head of state and head of government Head of State: the personalized repository of the sovereignty of the stat
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