POLS 110 Study Guide - Final Guide: Commonwealth Realm, Gerontocracy, Confederation Bridge

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Published on 16 Apr 2013
School
Queen's University
Department
Political Studies
Course
POLS 110
Governance vs. Governed:
Governance:
o Universal concept
o Exercise of power and decision making for the community (legitimate)
Governed:
o NOT a universal concept
o Institutions created to undertake the process of governance
Example: Brazilian Favelas
Characteristics of a State:
Highly institutionalized
Rules are codified
Monopoly on the use of power
Division of classes and labour
Separation of government and the governed
Functions of the State:
Defines the community
o Draws boundaries and defines who is a citizen
Conducts relations with others
Maintains order
o Enforces rules
o Reproduces itself
Economic redistribution
Supreme Political Authority
Needed for a state to perform its functions (can’t do by power alone)
Universal tendency to associate name and identity to supreme political authority
o E.g. Nswt (name for Pharaoh), Oba, Pontifex, Maximux, Consul, President
Locus of supreme political authority located in particular institution or individual
Not well articulated until making of the Modern State
What is Sovereignty?
Supreme and legally unbound power over citizens and subject people (Jean Bodin 1567)
Sovereignty is NOT:
o Independence: the ability to make decisions indigenously
o Autonomy: the ability to make decisions as one pleases
o Independent and Autonomous but not Sovereign:
Carthage (600BCE)
Athenian Empire (430BCE)
Rome (77BCE)
Franckreich (772CE)
T’ang Dynasty (900CE)
Iwi (Maori) (1400CE)
Grew from contradictions of how political authority was organized in Europe
Idea was conceived during domestic wars, put in place during 30 years war
o From Defenestration of Prague (May 1618) to the Peace of Westphalia (Oct 1648)
o Institutionalized the idea that rulers should be supreme in their own domain
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From Feudal to the Modern State
Religious: huge power of pope Protestantism
Economic: subsistence emergence of trade, migration to cities
Military: gun powder allowed previously impregnable fortresses to be overpowered
Cosmological: ‘god over everything’ humanism
Struggle for Sovereignty
Defenestration of Prague: Protestants pushed seven Catholic Lords out of a window
Thirty Years War: struggle between Holy Roman Empire and its German Protestant States
Peace of Westphalia: institutionalized Bodin’s idea
o Recognized ‘sovereignty’ of princes in the Holy Roman Empire
o Recognized ‘sovereignty’ of Switzerland and the Netherlands
o Institutionalized the idea that rulers should be supreme in their own domain
Theory of Sovereignty
Supreme political authority within a given territory is indivisible
All subject peoples are obligated to obey
Other sovereigns must recognize and respect your claim to sovereignty
Reality of Sovereignty
Is actually divisible
o Segmentation of sovereignty:
State is segmented but supreme political authority not divided
Unitary system:
One singular authority responsible for segmenting state
Ability to change or eliminate segments
Con-federal system:
Supreme political authority is held by the various segments who come
together to form the central government
E.g. USA before the civil war
Federal system:
Supreme political authority divided by area and power
E.g. Canada
People do not always obey
o E.g. uprisings, civil wars
Not all claims are respected
o Contested territory (e.g. Kashmir, Jerusalem)
o Extraterritoriality
Desire of one sovereign to extend its authority into the borders of other
E.g. Iraq war
Cuba vs. America vs. Canada
American embargo on Cuba
American “Trading with the Enemy Act”
o Cannot buy Cuban products anywhere
Wal-Mart Cuban pajamas in Canada
Canada’s Extraterritorial Act
o Cannot obey foreign laws in Canada
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Federalism: supreme political authority divided by area and power
Assumptions of Federalism:
Each level is autonomous (immune form elimination)
Boundaries inviolable
Supreme political authority divided by both territory and function (power)
Necessity of base line of equality
o Collective sharing in central rule-making by unequal units (population)
Each level must be able to act directly on the citizen
Necessity of (at least) two sets of courts
o Need an adjudicating institution to resolve provincial disputes (Supreme Court)
Necessity of a procedure for amending the constitution
Citizens must be allowed to express loyalty to more than one level of government
Secession to be made difficult
All players in the system must be committed to power-sharing
Attractions of Federalism
Allows for the consensual merging of independent units
o E.g. colonies in America, Canada, India, etc.
Allows for the protection of local traditions
o E.g. Quebec and language, Southern States and slavery
Allows for the maintenance of separate local/regional/national identities after the creation of a
new political community
o E.g. Canada and each unique province
Allows for governance to be more local and thus more sensitive to local conditions
Dissolution, Expulsion, Secession
Dissolution: dismissal of an official body
o E.g. Czechoslovakia (1993) Czech Republic and Slovakia
Expulsion: forcing something out of a body
o E.g. Malaysia expelled Singapore (1965)
Secession: withdrawing formally from membership of a federation or body
o Peaceful:
Norway from Sweden (1905)
o Resulted in War:
Confederate States of America
American Civil War (1861) future of slavery was in doubt
Bangladesh from Pakistan (1971)
Reacted with supreme brutality to put down secession
Chechnya from Russia (1991)
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Document Summary

Governance: universal concept, exercise of power and decision making for the community (legitimate) Institutions created to undertake the process of governance. Defines the community: draws boundaries and defines who is a citizen. Maintains order: enforces rules, reproduces itself. Needed for a state to perform its functions (can"t do by power alone) Universal tendency to associate name and identity to supreme political authority: e. g. Nswt (name for pharaoh), oba, pontifex, maximux, consul, president. Locus of supreme political authority located in particular institution or individual. Not well articulated until making of the modern state. Supreme and legally unbound power over citizens and subject people (jean bodin 1567) Independence: the ability to make decisions indigenously: autonomy: the ability to make decisions as one pleases. Grew from contradictions of how political authority was organized in europe. Idea was conceived during domestic wars, put in place during 30 years war: from defenestration of prague (may 1618) to the peace of westphalia (oct 1648)

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