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POLS 243 – Exam Review – 2010/2011 Exam

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Political Studies
POLS 243
John Mc Garry

POLS 243 – Exam Review – 2010/ 2011 Exam Answers (1) Who were the main victims of the 1994 Rwandan Genocide?  Ethnic Tutsis = Victims  Killed by the Hutus (2) Define a presidential system of government. Give one example of a country that has an ‘executive’ presidency and one example of a country that has a ‘symbolic’ presidency  Presidential system of government = system of government where a head of government is also head of state and leads an executive branch that is separate from a legislative branch  Executive Presidency = usually popularly elected, president who exercises active executive power in certain systems of government…. Example: South Africa  Symbolic Presidency = United States? (3) The legal (international law) definition of genocide includes the mass killing of ethnic groups, homosexuals, and racial groups? True or False?  Found in Articles II and I of the 1948 Convention of the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide  Article One: 1) the mental element, meaning the "intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such", and 2) the physical element which includes five acts described in sections a, b, c, d and e. A crime must include both elements to be called "genocide”  Article Two: Article II: In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: (a) Killing members of the group; 
 (b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; 
 ( c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; 
 (d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; 
 (e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group. (4) Explain how ‘partition’ differs from secession. Provide three examples of ‘partition’ in the th 20 Century  Partition = change of political borders cutting through at least one territory considered a homeland by some community. That change is done primarily by diplomatic means, and use of military force is negligible. Partition is imposed, secession is wanted.  Secession = is the act of withdrawing from an organization, union, or especially a political entity. Threats of secession can also be a strategy for achieving more limited goals  Three Examples: (1) India partitioned into Pakistan and Hindu India. Pakistan – east and west. (2) Partition of Ireland in 1920 into independent Irish Free State and Northern Ireland (British) (3) Partition of Yugoslavia in the 1990s (5) What are ‘ethnic expulsions’? Give two examples, with dates and the names of victims from the 20 Century.  Ethnic expulsions = The systematic elimination of an ethnic group or groups from a region or society, as by deportation, forced emigration, or genocide.  1. Turkey trying to expel Greeks  2.  3. (6) Define in one sentence, the meaning of ‘control.’ List four examples of them from the 20 th Century  Control: constrains or controls a minority they are not fond of; No conflict may just mean the state is at good control, not that they get along  An arrangement whereby one ethnic community dominates the state and whatever other communities within the state  1. Apartheid South Africa – run by Dutch speaking whites (Whites only vote)  2. Estonia / Latvia – Russians took over these when Stalin won WW1 , Russians represented about 42% of the population  3. Sri Lanka – Tamils do not have the same rights as Sinhalese  4. Northern Ireland – Catholics in the North do not get equal rights (7) Assimilation involves the erosion of cultural differences in both the private and the public spheres. True or Flase?  True  “Assimilationists seek the erosion of private cultural and other sorts of differences among citizens and create a common public identity” (8) Nelson Mandela a conscoiatonalist, segregationist, integrationist,
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