POLS 243 – Exam Review – 2010/ 2011 Exam Answers
(1) Who were the main victims of the 1994 Rwandan Genocide?
Ethnic Tutsis = Victims
Killed by the Hutus
(2) Define a presidential system of government. Give one example of a country that has an
‘executive’ presidency and one example of a country that has a ‘symbolic’ presidency
Presidential system of government = system of government where a head of
government is also head of state and leads an executive branch that is separate
from a legislative branch
Executive Presidency = usually popularly elected, president who exercises
active executive power in certain systems of government…. Example: South
Symbolic Presidency = United States?
(3) The legal (international law) definition of genocide includes the mass killing of ethnic
groups, homosexuals, and racial groups? True or False?
Found in Articles II and I of the 1948 Convention of the Prevention and
Punishment of Genocide
1) the mental element, meaning the "intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a
national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such", and
2) the physical element which includes five acts described in sections a, b, c, d
and e. A crime must include both elements to be called "genocide”
Article II: In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following
acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical,
racial or religious group, as such:
(a) Killing members of the group;
(b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring
about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
(d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
(e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
(4) Explain how ‘partition’ differs from secession. Provide three examples of ‘partition’ in the
Partition = change of political borders cutting through at least one territory
considered a homeland by some community. That change is done primarily by
diplomatic means, and use of military force is negligible. Partition is imposed,
secession is wanted. Secession = is the act of withdrawing from an organization, union, or especially
a political entity. Threats of secession can also be a strategy for achieving more
Three Examples: (1) India partitioned into Pakistan and Hindu India. Pakistan –
east and west.
(2) Partition of Ireland in 1920 into independent Irish Free State and Northern
(3) Partition of Yugoslavia in the 1990s
(5) What are ‘ethnic expulsions’? Give two examples, with dates and the names of victims
from the 20 Century.
Ethnic expulsions = The systematic elimination of an ethnic group or groups
from a region or society, as by deportation, forced emigration, or genocide.
1. Turkey trying to expel Greeks
(6) Define in one sentence, the meaning of ‘control.’ List four examples of them from the 20 th
Control: constrains or controls a minority they are not fond of; No conflict may
just mean the state is at good control, not that they get along
An arrangement whereby one ethnic community dominates the state and
whatever other communities within the state
1. Apartheid South Africa – run by Dutch speaking whites (Whites only vote)
2. Estonia / Latvia – Russians took over these when Stalin won WW1 , Russians
represented about 42% of the population
3. Sri Lanka – Tamils do not have the same rights as Sinhalese
4. Northern Ireland – Catholics in the North do not get equal rights
(7) Assimilation involves the erosion of cultural differences in both the private and the public
spheres. True or Flase?
“Assimilationists seek the erosion of private cultural and other sorts of
differences among citizens and create a common public identity”
(8) Nelson Mandela a conscoiatonalist, segregationist, integrationist,