PSYC 100 Study Guide - Prefrontal Cortex, Red, Perseveration

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10 Apr 2013
Week Five: Self and Others
How does our sense of self and others affect our interpersonal behaviour?
Self and Identity
How do we know who we are, and how do we know that we know
Identifying Oneself
When infants are born, their ability to reason about themselves as separate from those around
them is extremely limited compared to what it will eventually become
The Rouge Test: used to determine development of a sense of self by using a dot of red colour
on the nose of the child or animal, then placing them in front of a mirror to see if recognition
occurs if they are self-aware they will inspect the red dot on themselves, not their reflection
infants are usually able to pass the test between 15-24 months
Developing Self-Identity
As language skills increase, so does development of self
o By age 2 children can refer to themselves by name or pronoun
o Between 3 and 4 they can describe their personal characteristics (physically observable
traits, abilities and preferences, social relationships, psychological states)
Around age 8, children become more likely to use knowledge about themselves to evaluate and
modify their behaviour; self-concept becomes more nuanced as children have increased
autobiographical memory, and they are able to make social comparisons between their own
abilities and those of others; they also have broader terminology and become more concerned
with how other perceive them
Adolescents are often quite concerned with how they are perceived by others, sometimes
experiencing an imaginary audience, where they feel they are being watched/judged causing
feelings of self-consciousness and questions of self-concept
Also aware that different behaviours are appropriate in different contexts, which can be
confusing for their sense of identity
Different cultures (individualist vs. collectivist) influence how you perceive yourself
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