PSYC 100 Study Guide - Mary Ainsworth, Seat Belt, High High

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10 Apr 2013
Week Six: Social Development
What factors influence our social development?
Being a Role Model
How do factors like role models, parent-child interactions, sex, gender, and
friendship influence social development?
Initially our parents/caregivers are our biggest (if not only) models, but as we get older our social
spheres expand and we are influenced by our peers much more
Social Brain Hypothesis: reason certain species (e.g. humans, chimps, dolphins) have brains so
large and metabolically demanding is to meet the cognitive demands of social living
Rules and Discipline
One of the first ways we learn about appropriate and inappropriate behaviour is by caregivers
enforcing rules on us the way they define and enforce rules is also important
Methods of behaviour modification:
o Positive Punishment (e.g. spanking) may cause immediate behaviour change, but is not
the most effective and does not necessarily teach children to behave appropriately in the
long term
o Negative Punishment (e.g. time out)
o Positive Reinforcement (e.g. praise, treat) most effective
o Negative Reinforcement (e.g. relaxing other restrictions) can be effective, however it
can be hard to implement in parenting parent can’t follow child around making an
annoying noise until the child acts appropriately (like a car busser that sounds until you
put on your seat belt)
Hoffman suggested caregivers could employ several styles of discipline, but the one called
‘induction’ was most responsible for empathetic moral development
o Inductive Discipline: guiding behaviour by introducing appropriate limits and setting up
reasonable consequences while also explaining why
o Involves highlighting to the child the consequences of their actions on others
o Encourages the development of feelings of empathy and guilt, and to increase levels of
prosocial behaviour in children
Teaching and Learning
While young creatures are clearly observing and learning, modeling behaviours that older
animals exhibit does not necessarily constitute teaching
To qualify as teaching, the model (or teacher) must engage in behaviour that provides benefit to
the learner (but not themself), must engage in the behaviour only in the presence of naïve
individuals, and the observing individual must gain mastery of the skill being modeled faster than
would happen otherwise
E.g. meerkat parents remove stingers from scorpions to allow the young to practice killing it
without risk of serious injury or death young learn skills faster with this training than without
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Parenting Styles (Baumrind)
Level of Interaction
Parenting Style
Demandingness (discipline)
Responsiveness (love)
Highly demanding of their children and highly responsive to the them; unlikely to use physical
discipline and will more often explain the reasons behind their rules
Reason with children, hearing arguments but not always giving in to them
Firm rules consistently upheld, but grant high degree of freedom within set boundaries
Children tend to be socially competent, be self-confident, and have the best overall outcomes
Often do well in school, feel good about themselves, and report feeling supported by parents
Have better self regulation and are quicker to adapt to new situations
Highly demanding of their children, inflexible about deviates from expected behaviour, and less
responsive to their children’s needs; tend to discipline using threats and punishment and are
much more likely to use physical discipline
May praise obedience as a virtue and expect children to follow rules without explanation
May be unhappy and lack social competence, conforming well to standards and expectations of
adults but lacking in self-confidence
May be unsure of themselves in social situations and look for guidance from authority figures
when faced with moral issues
Use of physical discipline is associated with anxiety and increased aggression in children
Place very few demands on their children but are highly responsive to them; they believe
children learn best on their own, without structure imposed on them by adults
Allow children a great degree of freedom in regulating their own lives and place few demands on
them to achieve or to behave appropriately
Often have difficulty with controlling impulses and acting responsibly
Report high self-confidence but do not perform well in school, higher rates of substance abuse
May react more intensely than other children to conflict situations
Disengaged from their children and are neither demanding nor responsive; they do not set limits
for, or monitor the activities, of child, and may actively discourage them
More engaged in meeting their own needs than those of their children
Lower perceptions of themselves and are less competent
May be antisocial and lack self-regulation, and are prone to substance abuse
More likely to internalize their problems, leading to depression and social difficulties, and are
more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviour
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