PSYC 100 Study Guide - Basal Forebrain, Thermoregulation, Prefrontal Cortex

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Published on 11 Apr 2013
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Week Eight: Motivation and Emotion
Why do we do the things we do?
Motivation
Motivation: the (internal and external) desires, needs, and interests that arouse and activate an organism
to move toward a specific goal; a general term for a group of phenomena that affect the nature,
strength, and persistence of an individual’s behaviour
Drive: Reversible internal condition that orients individuals towards specific types of goals
Regulatory Drive: those such as hunger, thirst, thermoregulation, and sleep that help to maintain
physiological homeostasis and are needed for immediate survival
Nonregulatory Drive: fulfill some other evolutionary purpose
o Safety: sleep and fear motivate us to replenish our bodies and avoid danger
o Reproductive: sexual, maternal, jealousy motivate us to reproduce, care for our young,
and protect our mates
o Social: approval and acceptance motivate us to cooperate
o Educative: play and exploration motivate us to practice skills and learn about environment
Motivational States
Energizing direct and animal to act and direct behaviour toward a goal, and help animals sustain
their behaviour until they achieve their goal
Reward-seeking state reinforced by the pleasure experienced once the reward is obtained
Electrical stimulation to certain parts of the brain (basal forebrain) in rats was more motivating
than food, showing animals can be motivated by rewards that have no obvious value for survival
and drive reduction (i.e. nonregulatory drive)
Aesthetic pursuits (music, art, etc.) are associated with high status making you competitive as a
mate, as well as play and exploration, therefore these pursuits do not separate us from animals,
they are the same motivational mechanisms operating in a more complex brain
Central State Theory
Certain hubs or nuclei in the brain involve detection of imbalances (e.g. low energy/glucose and
salt), decision making (executing a plan to seek food), and motor output (action of hunting)
E.g. may not be aware body’s salt is low, but suddenly crave salty foods after an endurance event
The hypothalamus serves as a hub, sensing internal states, responding to hormone levels, and
orchestrating the release of other hormones basically acts to restore bodily homeostasis
Drive-Reduction Theory: drive produces unpleasant state that causes an organism to engage in
motivated behaviours (e.g. putting on a sweater when cold)
Explains the drives but not the incentives that lead us to solve a need in a specific way some
motivations (like money or sex) don’t change a homeostatic need
Cognitive Aspects of Motivation
Intrinsic Incentives: result from an internal need
Extrinsic Incentives: result from gaining a reward or avoiding an unpleasant consequence
Over-Justification Effect: people who shift from intrinsic to extrinsic rewards for engaging in an
activity will stop if the extrinsic reward is removed (even though they used to do it for fun)
o Not all rewards do this if new extrinsic reward is ‘no-strings-attached’ will motivate
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