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PSYC100 - Introduction to Psychology - FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE.pdfPremium


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 100
Professor
Jordan Poppenk
Study Guide
Final

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PSYC100: Introduction to Psychology - Lecture 1: Introduction
Psychology is the scientific study of the behaviour thought and experience
· Not the study of the brain but how it contributes
· As a result of our thought process
Parts of Psychology
· Behaviour includes things we can observe
o Motor control
o Bullying
o Violence
· Though includes things we cannot observe
o Intention
o Motivation
· Experience includes
o Emotion
o Perception
Psychology projects into a wide range of different discipline
· Cognitive, industrial-organization, comparative, educational, developmental, clinical,
biological and social psychologies.
· Clinical (medicine), Educators (education) Managers (Business), Philosophers
(Humanities), Witnesses (Law), Designer (Engineering)
· All disciplines have ideas that concern individuals but different approach
A reasonable Person
Law: A standard. A typical person, with ordinary powers of self control
Economics: Assumption. People maximize their needs and desires.
Sociology: Groups of people. Is the emergent behaviour of groups of people logical
Psychology: Empirical Questions To what extent does people behaves logically? Do they vary in
this capacity?
Online Lecture:
Fields of Study in psychology includes neuroscience, perception, cognition, learning, motivation
and emotion, evolutionary psychology, child development, individual differences, social
psychology and aboriginal psychology.
Topic 01: What is Psychology and what do Psychologists Do?
What is psychology?
· The study of human behaviour, though process and experiences as well as surroundings.
Most of these areas are related to biology why human and non-human animals behave the
way that they do but also include the role mental processes involved in behaviour.
Psychologists Worldwide

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Many psychologists work as researchers and teachers at universities, advertising,
communications, business and human resources and governmental and community service
organizations (Applied Psychologists).
Based on what you read on the CPA website and the career choices outlined there, which
activity do all the careers have in common?
· Studying depression
· Understanding behaviour ***
· Studying animals
· Understanding mental illness
Scenarios
1. Its 11:00 p.m. You have an exam in your 9:00 a.m. class. You know you should review your
notes one more time and then get a good night’s sleep. But instead you surf the Internet, or go
to a party, or stay up late talking. You don’t do what’s best for you, but instead what feels good
at the time. Why?
2. You leave the grocery store with two bags of groceries. You parked at the opposite end of the
lot because it was crowed, and by the time you reach your vehicle, the bags are a lot heavier
than they were when you left the store. Why do they feel heavier?
3. A friend tells you that she knows that you will likely be laid off, because your company just
announced a downturn in earnings, and she was laid off right after her company announced the
same. Why does she believe you’ll be laid off?
Rationalism
Greek philosopher Socrates
“Do our perceptions equal reality?”
· Concluded that our perceptions are not always the same as reality
Empiricism the philosophical view that we obtain all knowledge though observable facts and
experiences
Belief that people can describe the world through rules generated by observation quantification
and the principle of parsimony (accepting the simplest testable solution that accounts for all
available evidence)
· You could answer every question you have about the world and people’s behaviour through
logic and reason? Psychologists don’t generally stop; they applied logic and observe a
phenomenon, collect data about, and interpret the data to conclusions.
· Use of scientific approach arose from physiologists (scientists) who studied the function of
the living systems
· This approach is applied to questions about perception, thinking and behaviour

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Empiricism and Psychophysics
Psychophysicists measured the relationship between changes in magnitude of the physical
energy in stimulus (light intensity) and our sensation of the changes in stimulus magnitude (how
we perceive its brightness). Physical and sensory magnitudes were not equivalent.
· Psychophysical approach focusing on sensation and perception might explain why the
grocery bags feel heavier as you get closer to your car. (Measure the weight of the bag and
your perception of heaviness at various points in walking)
Founding Fathers Of Psychology:
Wilhlm Wundt
William James Wundt
· Focused on the advantages resulting from different human attributes
· How does our perception change despite the sensation (ie. Physical weight of bag)
remaining the same?
· What possible functions could this perceptual phenomenon serve?
Structuralism breaks complex phenomena down to their smallest components and then study
these components, assuming that if they understand all parts they will understand the whole.
(Wundt)
· Emphasized the elemental constituents of experience
· Human experiences are built up of elemental sensations
· Attempt to understand perception by dissecting it into its component sensations and then
cataloguing and exploring these sensations
· If we break things down into simpler parts and understand these, then we can understand
the whole
Functionalism examining behaviours, traits, and perceptions by asking, “what are they for?”
(Influenced by Charles Darwin’s natural selections) (James)
· Emphasizes not the elemental structure of processes but their purpose (Ex. Perception of
an apple. Structuralisms focuses on element components of perception didn’t perceive an
apple but redness, roundness, sweetness and crunchiness. Functionalist focus on why we
perceive the apple).
Think like a Functionalist!
Danger: Apples are solid, round objects that do not appear harmful. We can perceive them as
not dangerous to us.
Benefit: Apples are round, sometimes red and appear to be food. They benefit us by offering
nourishment
Survival: Perceiving danger and knowing what is safe to eat can benefit us by allowing us to
survive and procreate.
What is science?
Science process or method, a way of asking and answering questions
· Identifies causes through systematic observation and experiment
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