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PSYC 235- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 39 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 235
Professor
Meredith Chivers
Study Guide
Final

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Queen's
PSYC 235
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Psych 235 Guest Lecture 1
Schizophrenic patient
Actual auditory hallucinations vs convincing oneself of purpose through own individual
thoughts. Schizo-affective (less likely to have auditory hallucinations)
- Seasonal effects
- Meds are single most important thing not many behavioural therapies and other
techniques do as much.
Delusions
The fixed, false beliefs common in psychosis
Examples;
- Paranoia
- Grandiosity; feelings of having special powers, talents or abilities ect
- Delusions of reference (can be firmly held, w/o the reality that they have them),
Excess dopamine in the reward centres thought to play a critical role.
A. Everything becomes rewarding
B. Excess dopamine in striatal regions but reduced dopamine available in the
prefrontal cortex leads to cognitive impairments (reduced = negative sym/
excess = positive sym).
- Delusions often form when they are trying to figure out why everything is so
important to them (Too much dopamine makes irrelevant info seem important). Trying
to make sense of things that don’t have reason. Cognitive biases result in forming
explanations with too little evidence, and refusing to consider contrary evidence
Those with schizophrenia are much more likely to confirm their beliefs earlier, making
faster decisions and ruling out other possibilities faster. This makes it harder to change
ideas later. -> False fixed beliefs. Delusions persist.
Hallucinations
Auditory: Critical, or commanding voice (associated with bad remission).
Perceptual Distortions or Attribution Errors? Often perceived, as an external
source but is internal.
Earlier on in 1930s found that patients were moving lips subtly when experiencing
hallucinations therefore concluding that maybe the hallucinations are their own
thoughts. Recoding throat mumbles and playing back ->- auditory hallucinations.
Why did they misattribute their own thoughts as external events?
People w/ schizophrenia have a disconnect between their Broca’s and Wernicke’s area
(producing and understanding language).
Abnormal white matter.
Failure to recognize the source of info:
Errors in Source monitoring Predict 2-year
- incorrectly attributing words they said out loud (internal) as something they hear
(external).
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Functioning
Why is functional recovery so hard when symptom relief is capable?
Negative Issues; why is being deinstitutionalized (being discharged) being seen as
progress. However its re-institutionalization that takes place.
How to define Treatment Success?
Symptomatic remission
Syndromal Recovery
Sustained Remission
Functional Recovery
Kraeplin; Weighted importance on the cognitive deterioration of the disease
Eugen Bleular: Loosening of Associations
Disruptions to attention are more important than their intellectual disruptions (they are
seen as average).
Cognition abilities are strong predictors of functioning. It is a neuro-cognitive deficiency
Dysfunction is present before the illness (from a young age withdrawal, cognitive
deficits ect. are already seen)
Mild to moderate cognitive impairments are present in unaffected family
members
Impairments are not a consequence of symptoms but maybe the cause?
Dysfunction persists as symptoms remit. (memory even after symptom
remission is still impaired)
Behavioural Approaches to Remediating:
Cognitive remediation improves cognitive abilities however this does not increase
everyday living skills. However w/ both treatments skills training and cognitive
remediation’s is the best way to use the cognitive improvements effectively.
Wrench 3 (rate-limiters)
-Community effects are the greatest hindrances in putting patients in a better state.
Stigma
Avoidance of seeking treatment
Low self worth; internalization of diagnosis they see it a confirming there
problems and therefore make no effort to improve b/c they just accept it.
Stigma by association
Decreased employment chances
Social risk factors, not mental illness alone predicts violence.
- Substance abuse (this is where some are more likely to be aggressive)
- Victims of violence during childhood
- Living in neighbourhoods where violence is common.
They are actually more likely to be at risk for being victims of abuse.
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