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PSYC 332- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 39 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 332
Professor
Dean A Tripp
Study Guide
Final

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Queen's
PSYC 332
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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CH 10: Pain and its Management
STATS ect.
Chronic = long term (6 months or more), painful, and difficult to treat.
One of the most common causes of disability in Canada, affecting 1/10 CAD (1.5
million)
More common in elderly (65+) and women.
Cost 10 billion Annually
Pain is difficult to study b/c it is a subjective experience.
Soldiers requesting morphine ¼ compared to 80% of civilians.
Chinese students lower pain tolerance, due to differences in cultural norms
regarding expression and coping.
Measures
The Pain Catastraphizing Scale: to address the psychosocial components of
pain.
The McGill Pain Questionnaire
Pain behaviours observable beh that arise as manifestations of chronic pain.
Four basic types:
1. Facial and audible
2. Distortions in posture
3. Negative affect
4. Avoidance of activity
How children express pain? This data depends on behavioural and self-reports. Having
more verbally expressed pain meant higher rates of facial reactions and a higher pain
rating.
Pain verbalization associated with age and how parents respond (pain
promoting> control>pain reducing to child’s pain experiences.
Physiology of Pain
Pain is a protective mech. to bring into consciousness awareness of tissue
damage.
Pain is accompanied by motivational and beh. responses; withdrawal and
intense emotional reactions. eg. Crying or fear
Pain Perception
1. Mechanical Nociception (general pain perception)mech damage to
the tissues.
2. Thermal damage
3. Polymodal nociception pain that triggers chemical reactions from
tissue damage
Activation of peripheral nerve fibres:
1. A-delta & C- fibres: mechanical or thermal /pressure and vibration pain.
2. A-beta fibres: have a suppressing effect on the aching pain transmitted by the C-
fibres.
Theories of Pain
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Traditional models suggested the transmission of pain signals from the site of injury
to brain ie. Pain perceived was a directly proportional to tissue damage.
Gate Control Theory (Melzack & Wall):
Psychological factors play a sig. role in the pain experience.
Modulation of the pain gate occurs at the spinal column level by the dorsal
horn.
A-delta and C-fibres = open
A-beta = close
Signals descending from the brain can also modulate pain central control
trigger (large diameter, rapidly conducting fibres that activate cognitive
processes)
Why pain is subjective based on personal physical, emotional and cognitive
experiences.
The Periductal gray activation linked to pain relief.
Cerebral cortex involved in cog. Judgements about pain.
Secondary affect feelings of unpleasant and negative emotions associated with
future concerns of pain.
Limitations: it cannot some chronic pain eg. Phantom limb pain experienced
among amputees.
An extension to gate control theory=
Neuromatrix theory
- There are networks of neurons that extends throughout areas of the brain to create
the felt sensation of a whole, unified self body self neuromatrix. This generates
nerve impulses that are characterized into characteristic repetitive patterns called
neuro-signatures.
*** Both state that pain is a result of multiple determinants and not sensory factors
alone
Neurochemical Bases of Pain and It’s Inhibition
The brain can inhibit pain by sending descending messages.
Study on rats/discovery of Stimulation produced analgesia: electrically
stimulating a proportion of brain could produce high levels of analgesia there not
feel pain of abdominal injury.
Endogenous Opioid peptides neurochemically based internal pain regulators
clearly involved in the response of stress.
1. Beta-endorphins: limbic system and brain stem
2. Pronekephalin: neuronal, endocrine an central nervous system
distributions
The phantom limb is perceived as an integral part of oneself. Mirror box to
reflect movements from the intact limb to create an illusion of the amputated
limb has shown some success in reducing phantom limb pain.
- Treatment involves gaining control over the phantom limb and developing a
coherent body image accepting it’s absence.
- Immersive virtual reality (IVR) - can result in a positive change in sleep
patterns.
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