PSYC 352 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Attention Management, 18 Months, Button Moon

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Published on 11 Oct 2012
Department
Course
Midterm Summary II
Categorization
- Superordinate: vehicle
- Basic (most important): car
- Subordinate: sports car
- Rosch: Basic Categories= argued to offer an optimal blend of within-category similarity and between-
category dissimilarity
o ** By 3 years, tend to favour basic level when naming objects
Categorization- What about People?
Teichman 2001
- Examined Jewish-Israeli children’s concepts of ‘a Jew’ and ‘an Arab’
- 4 to 15 year olds
- Draw a picture of a male member of each group (looked at clothing, weapons, professions, etc.)
- Also asked children questions about depicted males to assess beliefs and intentions
- Results:
o Children of all ages had generalized images of 2 ethnic groups
o Arab image was consistently more negative. MASSIVE GENERALIZATION
o Differentiation was expected, but these were rigid and polarized categories
- Age Trends:
o Preschoolers expressed both positive biases towards ‘in-group’ and negative biases towards ‘out-
group’
Reflects social influence (these children had no experience to create these biases)
o Children in middle childhood manifested reductions in both biases
o ‘out-group’ negativity resurfaces in adolescence
May be due to emerging self-identity
- ** shows categorization isn’t always a positive thing (e.g. with stereotyping)
“Concept” According to the Theory Theorists
- Every concept is a theory
- 3 “grand” theories
1) Theory of physical world
o Naïve physics
2) Theory of living things
o Naïve biology
3) Theory of behavioural/mental functioning
o Naïve psychology
Biological Concepts
- Develop in mostly similar ways across cultures
- ‘natural kinds’
1) Growth
- Distinguishing characteristic of life, specific to and necessary for all living things
PRESCHOOL KNOWLEDGE
- Decent at knowing what grows
- Understanding that its inevitable
- Grow= ‘get bigger’
- Living things can mend themselves but artifacts can not
- BUT can’t accept dramatic changes in size or exaggerated physical changes (e.g. caterpillar becomes a
butterfly)
2) Movement
- Lots of things move but only animal movement is independent
o At early ages we associate movement with being alive (e.g. clouds)
o Piaget studied how these movement cues meant ‘alive’ to infants
- Massey and Gelman, 1988
o 3 and 4 year olds
o Shown pictures different types of unfamiliar objects and creatures and asked whether each could
move up and down a hill by itself (i.e. quadruped, sloth, echidna)
o Results:
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Quadruped statue looked most familiar, but kids still accurately said sloth and echidna
were self-propelling (pictures were of real animals, but quadruped was a wooden
statue)
Children can overlook perceptual appearance in favour of underlying essence (i.e.
animate vs. inanimate)
3) Inheritance
- Living things come from living things, and inherit properties from their ‘parents’
o For the most part, children get this
- NATURE VS NURTURE
o General research paradigm= tell children about an entity with biological parents who have one
characteristic, and parents who raise it with an opposing characteristic. Ask children which
characteristic entity will have
o Example: Wellman and Gelman
Kangaroo raised by goats
Can he hop and does he have a pouch?
Preschoolers say yes! They understand the inherent properties of a kangaroo
- OTHER FINDINGS
o Understand inheritance by as early as 4
o Shown when reasoning about animals, plants, and social characteristics
o Kids can be more nativist than adults
o Nature bias: 5 year olds predict child switched at birth will speak language of their birth parent
- NATIVIST BIAS
o More nativist for behavioural traits (i.e. language) over physical traits
o Taylor, 1996
4 to 10 year olds
Asked about stereotyped sex differences
Girls raised on an island with all boys, will she still like playing with dolls?
At 4 years were nativistic (girls will like dolls), but by 9 years old were more
‘interactionist’ (girls will like dolls AND cars)
o Gellman and Heymann, 1997
Looked at personality traits
Baby born from nice parents but raised by mean ones
5 year olds understood that experience would play a role in who the child became
4) Illness
- What kids know about illness has relevance for the socialization of health-promoting behaviours
- Bugs… Yuck!
o Preschoolers will refuse to drink a glass of milk with a cockroach in it or one that just had one in it
o WILL drink is cockroach is BESIDE the glass, so they understand that contact is relevant when it
comes to contaminants
- OTHER FINDINGS
o Preschoolers recognize that not all illnesses are caused by germs
o Physical but not mental illness is caused by germs
o Preschoolers are aware of illness-fighting behaviours (i.e. washing their hands)
Basic Numerical Abilities
- Number abstractions= abstracting and representing the numerical value of an array of objects
- Numerical Reasoning= inferring the numerical outcome of transformations
Counting Principles
1) One-to-one
- One and only one distinct number name to each item
- 2.5 to 3 year olds grasp this
2) Stable Order
- Always recite numbers in same order (1,2,3…)
- 2 year olds grasp this
3) Cardinal
- Final number name gives value of set
- ** Hard because children can get bogged down by the process of counting
4) Abstraction
- Anything is countable
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- 4 year olds grasp this
5) Order- Irrelevance
- doesn’t matter what order you count objects in
- 5 year olds grasp this
- ** 3 year olds may implicitly as well!
- Gellman: task performance hides underlying research (i.e. get bogged down with the process of counting)
- Others: children at 3 don’t have the abilities
Starkey et al. 1990
- 6 to 9 month old infants
- Habituated to series of 3 item displays
- Test slides either had 2 or 3 items in the display
- Infants looked longer at slides with a new numerical value (different from their habituation)
- ** Study was also done in reverse. Habituated to 2 items then shown 3, infants looked longer at new 3
item display in test phase
FURTHER RESEARCH SHOWS
- Neonates: can discriminate small sets of numbers
- 4 months: can discriminate up to 4 or 5 items
- Infants can distinguish: elements in motion, actions, auditory and visual stimuli
Explanations for Infants Sensitivity to Number
- Preverbal counting mechanism= similar to what animals can do and related to symbol competence
- Subitizing= rapid apprehension of number in small sets (4 or less) through perception alone, without
counting
What about Numerical Reasoning?
- Wynn Research!
- 5 month olds
- ‘Violation of Expectancy’ Paradigm
- Addition Condition
o Possible: 1 + 1 = 2
o Impossible: 1 + 1 = 1
- Subtraction Condition
o Possible: 2 - 1 = 1
o Impossible: 2 1 = 2
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Document Summary

Rosch: basic categories= argued to offer an optimal blend of within-category similarity and between- category dissimilarity: ** by 3 years, tend to favour basic level when naming objects. Examined jewish-israeli children"s concepts of a jew" and an arab". Draw a picture of a male member of each group (looked at clothing, weapons, professions, etc. ) Also asked children questions about depicted males to assess beliefs and intentions. Results: children of all ages had generalized images of 2 ethnic groups, arab image was consistently more negative. Massive generalization: differentiation was expected, but these were rigid and polarized categories. Age trends: preschoolers expressed both positive biases towards in-group" and negative biases towards out- group". Reflects social influence (these children had no experience to create these biases: children in middle childhood manifested reductions in both biases. ** shows categorization isn"t always a positive thing (e. g. with stereotyping)

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