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PSYC 100 Fall Checklist Notes.docx

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Queen's University
PSYC 100
Ingrid Johnsrude

PSYC 100 Fall Checklist Notes 04/12/2012 9:44:00 AM Week 1- The Science of Psychology Describe the roles of psychological research including the different types of psychologists and problems they study  Roles of psychological research: o Seek understanding/explaining thought processes  Types of psychology: o Physiological- study of role of brain in behaviour o Comparative- compare brain capacities for various species of animals o Behaviour analysts- relation of environment to brain o Behaviour geneticists- genetics of brain o Cognitive- complex higher brain processes (cognition, memory, attention) o Cognitive neuroscientists- brain mechanisms responsible for cognitive processes o Development psychologists- development of behaviour throughout lifespan o Social- effects of people on brains of other people o Personality- individual differences in temperament and patterns of brain o Evolutionary- influence of natural selection on brain o Cross-cultural- impact of culture on brain o Clinical- causes/treatment of psychological disorders and problems associated with them Outline the philosophical roots of psychology.  Movement from animism to modern day psychology o Animism  early people commonly attributed life-giving spirit to anything that moved/grew independently because movements of their own bodies were controlled by their minds/spirits  Rene Descartes  French philosopher/mathematician  Advocated scientific investigation of natural phenomena  Reflexes  Dualism (reality consists of mind/matter) o Humans are set apart from the rest of the world, they possess mind (mind=not part of natural world, follows different laws) o Causal link existed between mind of physical body Outline the roots of psychology in biology and evolutionary thought.  Biological roots of psychology o Luigi Galvanni- muscles made to contract with electrical current o Johannes Muller- doctrine of specific nerve energies (rain recognizes nature of sensory input based on nerve that delivers messages; regions of the brain that receive different messages must have different functions o Pierre Flourens- experimental ablation (removal/destruction of a portion of the brain of an experimental animal to study functions of that region o Paul Broca- performed autopy on stoke victim, found damage part of left cerebral cortex (concluded part as centre for speen, Broca‟s area) o Gustav Fritsch/Edward Flitzig- speed of nerve impulse (27m/s, slower than electricity in wires)  Nerve impulses are more complex  Set stage for science of psychology Examine the major trends in the early development of psychology: Rationalism, Materialism, Empiricism, Structuralism, Functionalism.  Rationalism- based in Western philosophy (Greek philosophy origins, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle) o Pursuit of truth through reason and logic (Socrates= perceptions are not always the same as reality)  Materialism- based on James Mill‟s work o Reality is understood through physical world, (the mind of which is a part) into a complex system of looking at the mind  Empiricism- belief that people can describe the world through rules generated by observation, quantification, principle of parsimony (accepting simplest testable solution that accounts for all available evidence) o John Locke (founder)  Structuralism- Wundt, von Helmholtz, Fechner o Emphasis n elemental constituents of experience  Human experience is build up of elemental sensations  Emphasis on analysis (breaking things down into simpler parts/understanding them=understanding the whole  Functionalism- William James/James Engel o Strategy of understanding a species‟ structural/behavioural features by attempting to establish their usefulness with respect to survival/reproductive success  Influenced by Darwin/theory of natural selection  Emphasis on purpose of processes Outline the development of behaviourism and humanistic psychology.  Behaviourism- Thorndike/Pavlov/Watson o Movement in psychology that asserts that only the proper subject matter for scientific study in psychology is observable behaviour  Humanistic Psychology o Human nature goes beyond environmental influences  Psychologists should study only conscious processes o Emphasis on human experience, choice of creativity, self- realization and positive growth Describe the newer trends in psychology including the cognitive sciences and neurobiology.  Cognitive science o Study of complex behaviours/mental processes (perception, attention, learning/memory, verbal behaviour concept formation, problem solving)  Neurobiology o study of biology of brain o discovery of brain mechanisms response for cognitive processes Make connections between psychology and other disciplines. Describe how psychology is relevant to many different professions.  Study of behaviour and mental processes o Any profession that involves people can benefit from psychological study/knowledge  Application of research to people‟s behaviour PSYC 100 Fall Checklist Notes 04/12/2012 9:44:00 AM Week 2 The Ways and Means of Psychology Explain the five principal steps of the scientific method.  1. Formulate hypothesis  2. Design a study  3. Collect data  4. Analyze data/obtain results  5. Draw conclusions from results/develop new hypotheses/share results Summarize the principles of good experimental design.  Good validity (how much an experiment measures what it is intended to measure) and reliability (repeatability of measure; ability to repeat measurement and get the same results)  Strong dependent (variable to be measured) and independent (variable that is to be manipulated)  No confounds  Strong correlation between IV, DV  Strong Causation (IV creates DV)  High generalizability ( ability of results to be extended to other groups/situations) Distinguish between the two main types of design and the conclusions we can draw from each.  1. Experimental design o can definitively infer cause o experimenter has strict control over variable/can manipulate them to see outcome  2. Correlation study design o can‟t definitively infer cause o descriptive statistic (summary of dating in a meaningful fashion) that describes relationship between two variables Describe the proper procedures for the selection of participants for an experiment and their assignment to conditions. Include the problems associated with participant expectations and controlling those expectations.  Selection of participants o Can be found groups (correlation studies) or chosen groups (experimental designs)  CPA (Canadian psychological association) code of conduct/ethics committee clearance  Assignment of participants to condition o Random assignment  Any individual in experiment is equally likely to be in the experimental group or control group  Control group is as similar as possible to experimental group  Avoids bias  Problems with participant expectations o Subject expectancy effect  Condition in which experimental participant believes they know what the experimenter is looking for/expectations related to experiment affecting his/her behaviour in experiment  Creates unreliable results  Controlled through double blind experiments o Placebo effect  Participants believe they are receiving treatment and respond as if they are actually being treatment  Controlled through placebo control group[ o Demand artefact  Aspects of study reveal hypothesis is being tested in some way  Controlled by double blind experiments o Self-selection bias  Allowance of participants to choose condition they wish to participate in  Controlled by random assignment Distinguish between validity and reliability.  Validity- experiment measures what it intends to measure  Reliability- repeatability of experiment; degree to which measurement can be made again and same results will be received Distinguish between subjective and objective measurements.  Subjective- measures that are able to be interpreted differently from person to person  Objective- measures in which tester‟s personal opinions cannot bias results Distinguish between independent and dependent variables.  Independent- variable that is being manipulated, experimenter has control over  Dependent variable- variable that is being measured, changes as a result of independent variable Describe correlational studies and how these studies relate to the issue of causality?  correlational studies –examination of relations between two or more measurements of behaviour/other characteristics of people/animals o correlation does not equal causation  all variables have not been controlled/some variables cannot be manipulated by experimenters (sex, genetic history, etc.) Explain the use of descriptive statistics, and the calculation and use of measures of central tendency, measures of variability and the measurement of relations.  Descriptive statistics- summarizes data into a meaningful fashion  Calculations of measures of central tendency: o Mean- centre of normal distribution (average distribution)  Calculated- addition of all scores/divided by number of scores o Median- midpoint of distribution  Calculated- order numbers and find middlemost value o Mode- most frequent occurring value in a distribution  Calculate- count how often numbers occur in a data set  Measures of variability- range (difference between largest/smallest score) and standard deviation (square root of mean)  Measurement of relations- correlational studies, degree to which two variables are related o Scatterplot (graph of items that have 2 values, plotted against each other, one on each axis) o Correlation coefficient (number that expresses strength of relation) Explain the concepts of statistical significance and its use in determining the difference between two group means.  Statistical significance- how likely a result could come from chance alone o Less than 5%= statistically significant, very unlikely results have come from chance  Group that is significant= more reliable Identify skills for evaluating psychological claims in the popular media.  Use common sense  Statistics can be misapplied to convince you of thing other than truth Reproduce the ethical issues involved in psychological research/ Describe the guidelines to promote the humane and ethical treatment of living participants.  1. Harm should be minimized to participants (physical/mental)  2. maximize benefits of research to participants in particular/society in general  3. Participants should be fully informed about nature of research in which they are invited to participate (risks/benefits included) and informed consent must be voluntary  4. Deception in research is unacceptable (tolerated under limited circumstances)  5. Private lives should not be introduced upon without permission  6. Participant information should be anonymous/confidential unless they agree otherwise  7. Vulnerable populations (children, etc.) should be treated with special care PSYC 100 Fall Checklist Notes 04/12/2012 9:44:00 AM Week 3 Lifestyle, Stress and Health Explain the physiological basis of the stress response.  Stressor= hypothalamus -> autonomic nervous system + pituitary gland (change in organs) o 1. Heart rate increases, blood pressure rises, blood vessels constrict, blood sugar levels rise, blood flow toward major organs (away from extremities) o 2. Breaking= deeper/faster, air passages dilate (more air into lungs) o 3. Digestion stops, perspiration increases o 4. Adrenal glands secrete adrenaline (epinephrine) to stimulate heart/other organs Explain how personality factors can influence the effects of stress on the development of physical and psychological disease.  Type A/B personality o Type A- behaviour pattern, high levels of competitiveness/hostility, impatience, intense disposition  Increased risk of stress and therefore CHD  Those with more optimistic outlooks/positive-focused personalities= fewer symptoms of illness, decreased levels of stress o More likely to have high self-efficacy (confidence in ability to perform necessary actions needed to reach a satisfying outcome) Explain how individual differences in cognitive appraisal affect our responses to a stressor.  If individuals perceive a situation as out of their control (events are taxing/exceeding our resources, as based on stress appraisal, Lazarus/Folkman) they will perceive it as stressful Describe how stress affects the immune system and contributes to the development of diseases.  Stress= decreased immune response o Increased likelihood of disease development Identify the sources of daily stress describing some effective strategies for dealing with stress.  Sources of daily stress- forgetting keys, etc.  Strategies o Problem-focused coping  Changes existing stressful situation by reducing/eliminating it  Only possible in circumstances when stressors can be controlled o Emotion-focused coping  Reduce emotional reaction to stressful situation  Exercise (aerobic), progressive muscle relaxation, cognitive appraisal o Proactive coping  Used to prevent/reduce stressful life event from occurring o Stress inoculation training (SIT)  Preparation for negative effects of stressful events/skills to reduce susceptibility to those effects  Small dose of stressor given to prepare for greater stressors in the future o Cognitive reappraisal  Any coping strategy in which one alters one‟s perception for the threat posed by a stressor to reduce stress o Social support  Help received from others in times of stress Describe how evolutionary history influences life choices.  Cultural evolution (adaptive change of culture to recurrent environmental pressures)  Choosing of short-term payoffs over long term goals (in case of death) Describe the factors that influence people to make healthy life choices  Personality factors  Stressors  Availability of behaviours  Model of self control o Ainslie/Rachlin o Self-control is most likely when prior commitment to couse of action leads only to larger, long-term reward PSYC 100 Fall Checklist Notes 04/12/2012 9:44:00 AM Week 4 Nature and Causes of psychological disorders (a) Describe the ways in which genes and environment interact to produce mental disorders.  Diathesis stress model o Why some people develop disorders and others do not o Biological predisposition (diathesis) + stressful life experience=disorder  Predisposition -> can be genetic, earl childhood experiences Describe how the behaviour of people with psychological illness is maladaptive.  Explain the importance of classifying psychological disorders.  Recognition for specific diagnostic category precedes development of successful treatment Describe the classification system of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR), and the pros and cons of this classification system.  DSM Multiaxial Classification system o Each patient classified on each axis:  1. Axis 1- major clinical syndromes  schizophrenia, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, dissociative disorders, sexual/substance abuse disorders, gender identity, eating/sleep disorders, developmental disorders (autism spectrum disorders), brain deterioration disorders (dementia, etc.)  2. Axis 2- personality disorders  long-term, maladaptive, rigid personality traits that impair functioning/cause distress  antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic, avoidant  controversial diagnosis, less treatable  3. Axis 3- general medical conditions  infections/parasitic diseases, diseases of blood/nervous system/circulatory/respiratory/digestive/genitouri nary systems  physical problems may be relevant to diagnosis/treatment  whole picture of health  4. Axis 4- psychosocial/environmental problems  stress associated with problems with social support, one‟s environment, legal system, education, marital status  information on severity/duration of life stressors patient is experiencing  5. Axis 5- global assessment of functioning scale (GAF Scale)  scale of functioning from 1-100  estimates extent to which person‟s life is diminished by disorder  1-10 score -> persistently in danger of hurting self/others, cannot maintain hygiene, etc.  90-100 -> superior range of functioning, lots of activities o useful in determining treatment  pros- decreased subjectivity, increased reliability/validity  cons- categorical system (those with severe symptoms lumped in to those with more mild symptoms), bias based on diagnosis (labelling, sex differences in diagnosis), overmedicalizing problems, emphasize on biological factors (potentially overlooking cognitive/environmental factors), Describe the prevalence of psychological disorders.  Prevalence- number of given cases in a given population at a given time (statistical term) o Varies based on which disorder is actually being discussed  Sex differences  11% of Canadians= psychological disorders/substance abuse problems  substance abuse, mood disorders, anxiety disorders most prevalent Describe and defend the nature of clinical and actuarial diagnosis.  Clinical diagnosis- diagnoses of psychological disorders/predictions of future behaviour based largely on experts‟ experience/knowledge o Less formal than actuarial diagnosis o Allows diagnosis to reflect uniqueness of each individual client  Actuarial diagnosis- diagnoses of psychological disorders/predictions of future behaviour based on numerical formulas derived from analyses of prior outcomes o More accurate than clinical method o Higher reliability (based on precise rule) Describe the symptoms and possible causes of the major anxiety disorders: panic disorder, phobic disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder.  Anxiety disorders- disorders characterized by physical symptoms of anxiety/fear (unrealistic/cognitive distress), escape/avoidance behaviour o Panic disorder (unpredictable attacks of acute anxiety that are accompanied by high levels of physiological arousal tat last from seconds to hours)  Symptoms:  panic attacks (periods of acute, unremitting terror)  Shortness of breath, clammy sweat, irregularities in heartbeat, dizziness, faintness, feelings of unreality  Anticipatory anxiety (fear of having a panic attack, may lead to development of phobia)  Causes:  Genetic/physiological  Biological component (highly heritable) o Differences in physiological response patterns (biologically controlled)  Cognitive  Expectancies (more likely to expect/be threatened by situational stressors, and underestimate abilities to cope with them) o Phobic disorders (experience of significant anxiety in response to a specific situation/object that does not present any real danger)  3 main- agoraphobia, social, specific  Symptoms- extreme feelings of panic when presented with certain situations (agoraphobia=situations where one cannot escape/get help, social=social situations where one is being judged, specific= situation/object)  Causes:  Genetic o Biological priming for development of certain phobias (evolutionary advantage)  Environmental causes o Learning -> classical conditioning o Predisposition to certain phobias o Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) (experience of obsessions and compulsions)  Symptoms:  Obsessions (uncontrollable thoughts, images, impulses) and compulsions (repetitive behaviours/mental acts) to downgrade anxiety  Negative reinforcement  Certain expressions of OCD  Fear of contamination, checking, hoarding, neatness/order  Causes  Cognitive  Faulty cognitions about competency  Genetic  Genetic origin  Strong family transmission rate  Single/dominant gene, shared with Tourette's syndrome  Elevated glucose metabolism rates in brain  Basal ganglia dysfunction o Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (anxiety disorder in which individual has feelings of social withdrawal accompanied by atypically low levels of emotion caused by prolonged exposure to a stressor, such as a catastrophe)  Symptoms  Social withdrawal  Low leves lof emotions  Recurrent dreams/recollections of event  Flashbacks (feeling traumatic event is reoccurring)  Outburtsts of anger  Heightened reactions to sudden noises  Sleep problems  General difficulty concentrating  Increased cortisol/norepinephrine reactions to stress  Causes  Lack of social support following event (or type of social support -> treatment after disasters may increase ability to get PTSD) o Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) (chronic, persistent feelings of anxiety, excessive worry)  Symptoms  Somatic symptoms differing frompanic (muscle tension, fatigue, irritability)  Causes  Cognitive  Intolerant of uncertainty  Worry as form of cognitive avoidance (believe it is a healthy coping strategy, avoidance of dealing with problem)  Physiological  Autonomic restrictors o Less physiologically responsive to emotions  Biological  GABA deficit (unregulated anxiety) Describe the symptoms and possible causes of somatoform disorders, dissociative disorders and personality disorders.  Somatoform disorders (physical symptoms for similar to medical illness, but for which no medical cause can be found) o Types:  Hypochondriasis (preoccupation with having a serious mental condition, despite significant evidence to the contrary)  Symptoms- anxiety focused on having symptoms  Causes- faulty cognitions (cognitive)  Conversion disorder (symptoms affecting motor/sensory functioning that appear to be related to a neurological disorder/mental condition without identifiable cause)  Symptoms- immediately following psychological trauma  Causes- learned symptoms of disorder, reinforced, leading to actual adoption of disorder  Pain disorder  Significant pain associated with psychological factors  Pain symptoms immediately follow a psychological trauma  Body dysmorphic disorder  Preoccupation with part of body that is perceived as defective (imagined/exaggerated)  Dissociative disorders (group of mental disorders characterized by disruption in usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory, identity/perception) o Dissociative amnesia  Inability to remember important events/personal information  Traumatic events (response) o Dissociative fugue  Amnesia with no apparent organic cause, accompanied by adoption of new identity/relocation o Dissociative identity disorder  Two/more distinct personalities within an individual  Behaviour guided by different personalities at different times  Way to deal with painful experiences (not all the time though)  Personality disorders (persistent, pervasive patterns of thoughts, feelings, interpersonal interactions, impulse control is considered inappropriate/discordant with culture) o Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD)  Failure to conform to standards of decency (lying/stealing, failure to sustain lasting, loving relationships, low tolerance of boredom, complete lack of guilt)  Lack of involvement by unresponsive autonomic nervous system  Less reactivity in emotional situations  Less anticipatory fear  Biological family conditions (substance abuse, etc.)  Parenting/childhood experiences (quality/abuse) o Borderline personality disorder  Personality disorder characterized by disturbances in sense of self, difficulty regulating mood, unstable interpersonal relationships, fear of abandonment, impulse behaviour (e.g. self-injury) as means of coping  Neuroticism  Impulsivity  Aggression  Anxiousness  Affect change  Insecure attachment  Serotergic systems/cholinergic systems  Childhood sexual/physical abuse PSYC 100 Fall Checklist Notes 04/12/2012 9:44:00 AM Week 5 Nature and Causes of psychological Disorders (b) Describe the characteristics and possible causes of substance- related disorders.  Characteristics- psychological disorders characterized by addition to drugs/aclhol/abuse of drugs/alcogol  Causes: o Genetic/physical- heredity/environment o Cognitive- personal benefits of drugs/alcohol Describe the characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia and the major types of schizophrenic disorders.  Symptoms: o Positive  Excess/distortion of normal functioning  Delusions, hallucinations, unwanted thoughts o Negative  Diminution/loss of normal function  Flat emotional responses, slow speech, movement  Types: o Schizophreniform disorder  Psychological disorder where the individual experiences the symptoms of schizophrenia for a period of only 1-6 months o Schizoaffective disorder  Psychological disorder  Mood episode (depression/mania) is being experience at the same time patient is exhibiting symptoms of schizophrenia (hallucinations/delusions) o Brief psychotic disorder  Episode of psychotic symptoms that lasts between one day/one month o Shared psychotic disorder (folie à deux)  Development of a delusion that is similar to a delusion already held by someone close to an individual o Substance-induced psychotic disorder  Disorder where psychotic symptoms are judged to be a direct physiological consequence of taking a psychoactive drug, medication, exposure to a toxin  Diathesis-Stress Model o Psychological disorders result from combination of a biological predisposition/traits that may lead to disorders/specific events that cause stress/may lead to onset of disorder o Diathesis (predisposition, vulnerability, tendency) o Can be genetic or early developmental Describe the biological, cognitive, and environmental causes of schizophrenia.  Biological causes o “schizophrenia gene” o dopamine hypothesis  Dopamine -> too much neurotransmitter leading to schizophrenic symptoms/ changes in size/shape of brain structures in individuals (etiology of changes is not well understood)  Cognitive causes o Brain structure changes  Environmental causes o Personality/communicative abilities of parents o Expressed emotion (social) o Parental discord Describe the symptoms of bipolar disorder, major depression, and the other mood disorders.  Bipolar I disorder o Experience of at least 1 manic episode (period of abnormally elevated mood that persists for at least 1 week) and is accompanied by at least 3 additional symptoms (decreased need for sleep, grandiosity, pressured speech, racing thoughts) and alternates with at least one major depressive episode  Can have mixed episode (periods in which mood rapidly alternates between sadness/euphoria)  Impulsivity is common  Also can suffer from psychotic symptoms (delusions)  Bipolar II disorder o Experience of at least 1 major depressive episode/1 hypomanic episode (period of abnormally elevated mood that persists for at least 4 days/sis accompanied by at least 3 additional manic symptoms)  Major depressive disorder o Period of intense depressed mood and/or loss of interest in activities that persists for at least 2 weeks and is accompanied by at least 4 additional symptoms (sleep disturbance, appetite disturbance, loss of energy, worthlessness, loss of concentration, suicidality)  Averagely lasts 6 months  50-60% of people with one episode will have another  90% of those with 2 episodes will have another episode  15% die of suicide  Cyclothymic disorder o Long term (at least 2 years) cycling of moods that alternate between depressed (not major depressive episode) and hypomanic (not manic episode) states  Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) o Form of depression that occurs during winter months/periods in which daylight is strongly limited o Symptoms; lethargy, sleep disturbances, craving for carbohydrates/weight gain o Cause- biological clock/circadian rhythms  Also serotonin  Dysthymic disorder o Chronic depressed mood that persists for at least 2 years and is accompanied by additional symptoms that do not meet criteria for major depressive disorder o At risk for developing episodes of major depression  Double depression Describe the biological, cognitive, and environmental causes of mood disorders.  Biological o Depression runs in families  1 degree relatives with people with depression=2-5 times moe likely to get depression o depression genes  genes increasing individuals‟sensitivity to environmental stress (which triggers depression)  gene combinations in serotonin systems o diathesis-stress model  psychological disorders result from combination of biological predisposition/traits leading to disorders/specific events that cause stress/onset of disorders  Cognitive o Emotional response to situation is determined by how you appraise/evaluate the situation  Those with depression- more likely to negatively appraise situation/experience negative mood in response to these situations o Cognitive model of depression  More negative thinking/negative biases in depressed persons when it comes to remembering information  Those with negative cognitions are more likely to develop depression in the future PSYC 100 Fall Checklist Notes 04/12/2012 9:44:00 AM Week 6 Treatment of Psychological disorders Describe the kinds of professionals who treat people with mental disorders.  Psychiatrists o Medical degree with additional specialization in psychiatry o Only mental health professionals who can prescribe medication  Clinical Psychologists o Doctorate degree in clinical psychology o Training in assessments/treatment of mental disorders o Training in statistics/research methods  Counselling Psychologists o Doctorate degree in counselling psychology o Less focus on statistics/research methods and more on clinical practice  Psychiatric Social Workers o Master‟s degree in social work o Specialization in psychiatric issues  Psychiatric Nurses o Nursing degree o Specialized training in psychiatric issues  Psychological Associates o Master‟s degree in clinical psychology  Counsellors/Psychotherapists o Unregulated terms o Individuals with any education backgrounds (or no) Summarize the most common ways to assess psychological disorders.  Clinical Interviews o Thorough interviews conducted by trained professionals designed to elicit information on the client‟s history/presenting symptoms o Vary in length/amount of details o Types:  Structured (predetermined questions)  Unstructured (whatever questions are considered relevant to specific client)  Semi-structured (predetermined set of questions + expanded questions based on client‟ responses  Cognitive and Neuropsychological Tests o To diagnose brain injuries, learning disabilities, intellectual disabilities, dementia o Examines cognitive functioning (intelligence, academic ability, memory, processing speed, language functions, executive functioning/planning & reasoning)  Brain injury o Medical imaging:  EEG (electroencephalogram)  CAT (computerized axial tomography  MRI/fMRI  Functional magnetic resonance imaging  PET scan (positron emission tomography)  Behavioural Monitoring o Recording specific behaviour/circumstances around behaviour o Self-reported (client) or staff (in-patient setting) o Learn about frequency of target behaviours, precursors (before)/antecedent (after) circumstances that trigger behaviour, reinforcements that perpetuate behaviours Describe the use of behavioural therapies based on operant conditioning and classical conditioning.  Behavioural therapy o Based on operant/classical conditioning/modelling o Effective in treating phobias/addictions  Systematic desensitization  Type of exposure therapy, effective (phobias)  Gradually exposing clients to feared stimulus to habituate/extinguish fear reaction  Relaxation techniques then mild -> more intense phobias  Flooding  Clients exposued to object they fear directly/fully  Don‟t work up ierarchy of increasingly fearful stimuli  Conditioned stimulus paired with harmless situation= extinguish conditioned fear response  Aversion  Pairing of pleasant but undesirable stimulus with aversive one  Client develops aversion to pleasant stimulus  Imaginal exposure  Exposure therapy  Client imagines feared stimulus/doesn‟t experience it directly  Effective in PTSD/severe anxieties  Classical/Operant Conditioning o Behavioural modification (therapy designed to alter behaviour using operant conditioning techniques) o Reinforcement- anything used to increase frequency of behaviour o Token economies (use of reinforcement to increase socially desirable behaviours) Describe the use of cognitive and cognitive behavioural therapies.  Cognitive therapy o Aaron Beck/Albert Ellis o Use of variety of therapeutic techniques to help clients identify thoughts/examine logic behind thoughts o INNACRUATE THOUGHTS= TRANSFORMED INTO ACCURATE/RATIONAL THOUGHTS o Used in combination with behavioural therapy= CBT  Rational Emotive therapy o Albert Ellis o Rational emotive therapy (RET)  Type of CBT  Proposes that driving force behind psychological problems is the thought process behind them  Thought determines mood o Works to identify/change person‟s inaccurate beliefs, many of which are grounded in emotion, which new thoughts focus on logic/thinking processes  External event/antecedent (A) -> beliefs held by person (B) (about event itself) -> consequences (of belief) (C)  Cognitive Behavioural Therapy o Based on cognitive theory of mental illness  Psychological problems are result of maladaptive ways of thinking, leading to maladaptive behaviours  Therapist teaches client how to identify/challenged ways of thinking and replace them  Combination of cognitive/behavioural therapy techniques Outline some of the benefits of group psychotherapy.  TARGETTED TO INDIVIDUALS WHO SHARE CERTAIN characteristics
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