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Objectives Semester 2.docx

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Queen's University
PSYC 100
Ingrid Johnsrude

Week 13 1 Describe the difference between language and communicationlanguage is a method for communicating information including ideas thoughts and emotionslanguage is a socially agreedupon rulegoverned system of arbitrary symbols that can be combined in different ways to communicate ideas and feelings about the present time or other times and places real or imagined 2 Identify the three key properties of human languageSemanticity the extent to which a language can use symbols to transmit meaningful messagesGenerativity the ability to combine words or symbols of a language using rules of composition and syntax to communicate an almost infinite variety of ideas using a relatively small vocabularyDisplacement the ability to convey a message that is not tie to the current time and place 3 Describe the components of language phonemes morphemes syntax semantics and pragmaticsPhonemes the basic distinctive speech sounds in a language that distinguish one sound from anotherMorphemes the smallest unit of meaning in language Syntax grammatical rules of a particular language for combining words to form phrases clauses and sentencesSemantics the relationship between words and their meaningsPragmatics the social rules of language that allow people to use language appropriately for different purposes and in different situation4 Explain how speech is produced and what this might mean for how speech is represented in the brain speech sounds are not sequentially produced but the system must anticipate and accommodate upcoming sounds in motor programming at the same time as current sounds are being articulatedArticulators mouth structures that make speech sound such as the jaw tongue lips and soft palate work using coarticulation articulators used effectively shaping multiple sounds at any moment in time so that different instances of a particular phoneme are acoustically different depending on the sounds preceding and following them the brain learns to discriminate between the phonemes actually used in language and discard unneeded information5 Discuss the categorical perception of phonemes Overlapping phonemes as the tongue positions itself for the next sound it is involved in the positionsound sounds acoustically differentSome sounds can correspond to more than one phoneme 6 Identify the skills required in learning how to readPhonetic read sounding out wordsWholeword reading reading by sightKnowledge or morphology VocabularyKnowledge or world 7 Describe the sequence of language development milestone cooing babbling single word and two word stage 1 Crying born2 months of life infants are limited mostly to crying as their sole means of verbal communication 2 Cooing 810 week infants begin cooing making their first speechlike sounds These often take the form of long drawnout vowelsooh and aahor blowing bubbles or smacking lips For their own amusement 3 Babbling 7 months of age when infants begin to mix consonants and vowel sounds These usually take the form of babababa or mama or dada 4 Single word stage 1015 months far from expert only used to refer to certain objects not because the words sound like those used by adults 5 Two word stage 18 months vocabulary spurt period of strong language growth in children in which they are able to learn and use a large number of words word pairings begin like I hungry Telegraphic speech speech that sounds like a telegram with only essential words has the words arranged in an order that makes sense and contains almost all nouns and verbs strung together in pairs 8 Interpret what under and over extension and overgeneralization tell us about how children learn language Underextension limit context for generalized words to certain specific meaningOverextension generalize known words to a wider variety of contexts than is appropriate for those wordsThey learn to apply a word to one thingand ensure that that object is always named that thing 9 Describe theories of language acquisition nativist vs Interactionist theoriesNativism theory of language development that proposes that children are born with an innate knowledge of universal grammerInteractionist belief that language development results from interaction among multiple biological and social influences 10 Apply theories of language acquisition to word learning and grammatical developmentgrammar is a property that emerges from the complexity of a growing vocabulary rather than the biologically endowed universal grammar supported by nativistscritical periods theorycritical periods for learning information 11 Interpret evidence from language learning in atypical environments wildisolated children creolization eg Nicaraguan Sign Language with respect to theoretical debatesCritical periods times in development during which the brain is extremely responsive to learning a specific type of knowledge for language first years of life Genie was neglected and malnourished for 11 years couldnt learn full potential of language when rescued and helpedSchool for deaf children Nicaraguacreated a language of their own from informal gestures they had used to communicated up to that point in their livesGenies case agrees with critical periods which somewhat agrees with bothNicaragua agrees with nativism
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