Study Guides (238,606)
Canada (115,249)
Psychology (552)
PSYC 100 (255)

100 lecture notes for exam .docx

9 Pages
Unlock Document

Queen's University
PSYC 100
Ingrid Johnsrude

All lectures Week 1: - hubel and wiesel won nobel prize, put an electrode into cats, and would record the activity in the single cell, they would flash stimuli on the screen, and they could tell whether the cell responded to that stimuli on the screen. They found that there were simple cells that responded to a bar, they were able to map out the visual system - they looked at what happened with new born cats in their visual systems. They looked at what happened if there wasn’t info from one eye, would the cat still have the same depth perception. If you limit info to only one eye, the part of the brain responsible for binocular vision wont develop. Theres a critical period in which if the brain doesn’t get that info, theres a permanent problem. - Perception: how our brain makes sense to the world. We make adjustments in our brain so that the world makes sense - Conformity Lecture 2: Research Methods: Correlational Study or Experiment or both? -an experiment is always a correlational study, but a correlational study isn’t always an experiment 1. Are people more or less creative in their work if they are pressured to be creative? - Can be a correlational study-because you’re not controlling for all the variables. There are many different factors involved, doesn’t allow you to test for cause - Can conduct an experiment- you have to randomly assign, allows you to test cause 2. Does our mood affect whether or not we will give money to charity? - Experiment - Correlational study 3. Does exposure to second hand smoke affect children’s cognitive development? - Couldn’t you measure/find out the different amounts from different children and then compare all of those as opposed to having a control group? Does watching violent TV programming make children behave more aggressively? - First steps: formulate a hypothesis, identify independent and dependent variables, operationalize variables. - Hypothesis: Children who watch violent TV programming are more aggressive. - Independent variable: the thing that you’re manipulating. You’re deciding what the exposure is. Ie. watching TV - Dependent variable: what is the outcome? Dependent on the manipulation. Measuring level of aggressive behavior - How do you operationalize the TV watching (IV)? Must define what violent TV is (choose the show), how much they watch - How would you measure aggression (DV)? Do something that acts as a trigger factor and then see how they react. - You must categorize what the aggressive actions are, so they know exactly what to be looking for. - You need a control group that’s not watching violent TV (sort of doing the opposite) - Manipulations: 1. Participant selection: who, how many, from where? - - Representativeness  generalizability - How can you solve the generalizability problem when you’ve used a biased sample? -by repeating the experiment multiple times in different settings - In the end what data are you going to collect? Levels of aggression. Must be valid (unbiased) and reliable. You need a few people who are rating levels of aggression. - What will you test? Pre/post behavior, gender differences, the average number of aggressive acts of the ones who watched violent TV in comparison to those who didn’t. - 5% rule- if the finding is less likely to occurred by chance then 5%, we will assume that it is reliable lecture 5: the nature and causes of mental disorders - Mental disorder: maladaptive ways of behaving and thinking - (a deficit in the Processes which we adapt to our environment in order to survive) - symptom: a person’s actions, thoughts, or feelings that could be an indicator of a mental disorder - syndrome: a constellation of interrelated symptoms manifested by a given individual (eg. Symptoms: Excessive exercising + purging etc… ) - mental disorder: based on a medical mode of disease - 3 criteria that must be met in order to make a clinical diagnosis: 1. impairment is clinically significant- must be experiencing a severe level of distress, or a severe level of impaired functioning during their daily lives 2. behvaiour is internally driven- must be within their biology, genetics …(impairment located within the person) 3. behvaiour is involuntary- cannot be a deliberate, voluntary decision- the actions cant be deliberate DSM IV TR - axis 1: major clinical syndromes: disorders that are usually diagnosed in childhood, schizophrenia, mood, anxiety, somatoform,, eating, sleeping disorders - axis 2: personality disorders: antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissitic, avoidant - axis 3: general medical conditions: any physical problems that might be relevant when diagnosing a mental disorder- infectious and parasitic diseases, nervous system, circulatory, respiratory, digestive - axis 4: psychosocial and environmental problems- stress associated with problems with social support, ones environment, the legal system- ie. If someones struggling at school, or cant find a job, or bad living situations - axis 5: global assessment of functioning scale (GAF scale)- estimates the extent to which a persons life has been impaired by their disorder, scale is from 1-100- the lower their number is, the greater their impaired functioning is, and it greatly affects their day to day lives dangers of labeling - Rosenhan 1973: being sane in insane places - Got together 8 healthy people who agreed to do this field study - They were “pseudopatients”, and had to try and admit themselves in to psychiatric hospitals, all called and set up interviews and said they had been hearing voices, and they were all diagnosed with schizophrenia - Once admitted to the hospital, they were instructed to act normal and say their symptoms had disappeared - Avg. days it took to be released- 19 days - Things that the patients said during their stay were turned into an abnormal behaviors by clinicians in order to fit the diagnosis - Huge overlap in the behaviors of people with or without psychiatric disorders Sex differences - Women are more likely to receive diagnosis of mood disorders, histrionic disorder - Men are more likely to receive substance abuse, antisocial personality disorder - Men and women face different societal expectations - Men report less distress with response to stimuli, even when their physiological responses are very high, they tend to express more anger then stress with respect to women - Bias in diagnosing disorders:  Men tend to be diagnosed with male disorders, and females with female disorders  In 1989, ford and widiger set fictitious case studies to clinicians for analysis  Sent one with antisocial (usually man), and one with histrionic (usually women)  When antisocial case was labeled as male, most people gave the correct diagnosis. But when it was labeled as female, they diagnosed it as histrionic disorder and vise versa  Histrionic tends to be overdiagnosed in women and under in men and vise versa for antisocial disorder in men Diathesis stress model - Diathesis: Refers to the genetic/developmental vulnerabilities in a person, they are present before the onset of the disorder (ie. Inherited characterisitics, learned beliefs as a child) - Stress: triggering circumstances for a disorder - Important to consider: maintaining causes- what keeps the disorder going once it actually begins- perpetuating consequences that cause a cycle - Some have positive things from recieveing a disorder- maybe they now receive a lot of attention from family and friends which they didn’t before Anxiety disorders - 12% of the population has anxiety disorder - sense of apprehension or fear accompanied by physiological reactions panic disorder; - recurrent, unexpected panic attacks (high level of anxiety) - between attacks, people experience anticipatory anxiety - with or without agoraphobia- anxiety about being in places where escape might be difficult or embarrassing - strong genetic component, people with panic disorder tend to have negative expectancies and don’t have confidence that they can deal with things phobic disorder - unrealistic excessive fear of a specific object or situation that impedes daily functioning - genetic causes (eg. Evolutionary adaptive- would enhance your sense of survival, back in the day it was normal to be afraid of certain stimuli) - environmental causes- (eg. Learning through classical conditioning) OCD - experiences obsessions and compulsions PTSD Symptoms: 1. intrusive recollections (eg. Dreams, flashbacks) 2. avoidant/numbing symptoms (inability to feel love or affection, loss of interest in activities, inability to recall events of trauma) 3. hyper-arousal symptoms (anger outbursts, difficulty sleeping, difficulty concentrating, person has extreme startle response…) - exposed to an extremely traumatic stressful event lecture 6: - Behvaioural theories- people learn maladaptive behaviours the same way they learn adaptive behaviours - Maladaptive behavior is the problem, need to change this behavior directly - Most techniques based on operant and classical conditioning - Operant conditioning: based on the fact that behavior is affected by its consequences (can lead to increase/decrease of that behavior) - Classical conditioning: association between stimulus and natural response transferred to another stimulus (eg. When you watch sad movies you cry, and you also eat popcorn when you watch the sad movie. Overtime, you could learn to associate crying with popcorn, and have nothing to do with sad movies) - Token economies-often implemented on a large scale in psychiatric institutions: if a patient does something desirable, they receive a token, and then overtime if they receive enough tokens, they are able to exchange the tokens for something they would like - Modeling: imitate the successful behaviours of others (note: not really operant conditioning”, but textbook puts it here). – helpful for treating sexual behaviours - Extinction of maladaptive behvaiours: remove previously available positive reinforces - Punishment of maladaptive behvaiours: administer negative consequences for undesirable behaviour (person can develop a hatred toward the punisher- and you prob don’t want that if the punisher is someone close to them, punishment could also take the form of physical harm and that’s an ethical issue) - Systematic desensitization: pair increasingly feared stimuli (eg. Spiders) with a relaxation response (patient is first calmed down, and then create a hierarchy of fear induced stimuli, then the client is exposed to each of their
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 100

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.