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2nd semester modules.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 100
Professor
Ingrid Johnsrude
Semester
Winter

Description
Week 18 - Social environment play a role in how we develop - Models: people who we have the opportunity to observe, and by doing so, from whom we learn to behave appropriately - Anyone in our environment can be a model, but amount of influence varies among models - Early in life, parents and caregivers dominate our social world - Alter on, our social influences expand to teachers and friends - Social brain hypothesis: the reason that species like humans, chimpanzees and dolphins have developed brains so large and demanding is to meet cognitive demands of social living. – suggests that the reason for evolutionary growth of the brain is to provide an advantage to social creatures over others of their species - In a species, the individuals with the greatest ability to outsmart their competitors will be most likely to survive - Greater cognitive abilities are seleceted through this process and eventually, larger brains will become the norm throughout the population - One of the first ways we learn about appropriate behavior- caregivers enforce rules on us - Most effective way of teaching children which behaviours they should choose to behave appropriately in the long run- positive reinforcement - Hoffman suggest a style of discipline called inductive discipline - Inductive discipline: guiding behavior introducing appropriate limits and setting up reasonable consequences while also explaining why – involves highlighting to the child the consequences of their actions on others while disciplining them - Induction has been known to encourage development of feelings of empathy and guilt and increase levels of pro-social behavior in children - Baumrind found that majority of caregivers fit into 1 out of 4 parenting styles. She based the styles on the extent to which parents engaged into 2 styles of interaction with their children. - These dimensions are: 1. parental demandingness- the extent of the caregiver’s behavior expectations for the child 2. parental responsiveness- the amount of support the caregiver provides for the child and the extent to which he or she meets the childs needs - refer to chart called use in second year - parents comforming to the 4 parenting styles indentified by baumrind engage in very different actions as they model behavior, create and enforce rules and limits and socialize their kids 1. authoritative parents: unlikely to use physical discipline and will explain the reasons behind the rules they lay out. They reason with kids, hearing their arguments but don’t always give in. they set firm rules but grand children a high degree of freedom within set boundaries 2. authoritarian: tend to discipline using threats and punishment and likely to use physical discipline. They may praise obedience as a virtue and expect their kids to follow rules without explanation 3. permissive: believe children learn best on their own, without structure imposed on them by adults. They allow kids a lot of freedom in regulating their own lives and place few demands to achieve or behave appropriately 4. rejecting-neglectful parents: don’t set limits for their kids, don’t monitor their activities and may discourage them. They’re more engaged in meeting their own needs then their child’s - parental treatment has long lasting effects on non-human animals and humans - to qualify as teaching: the model (or teacher) must engage in behavior that provides benefit to the learner (but not to him/herself) - he/she must engage in the behavior only in the presence of naïve individuals and the observing learner must gain mastery of the skill being modeled faster then would happen otherwise - meerkats can serve as a model for non-human animal teaching - Michael meaney studied genetic, neural, hormonal and behavioural aspects of maternal care used in multiple generations of rats - Infant rats receive attention from their mothers, who provide care in the forms of licking, grooming and nursing - Differences in amount of maternal grooming and nursing styles changed pups hormonal stress responses, fear responses and adapatability to new environments. Those with highly nurturing mothers grow up to be calm, but those with mothers who exhibit inconsistent nurturing behaviours tend to be more anxious as adults - Konrad Lorenz won nobel prize for his study of fixed action patterns- behavior or learning elicited by specific stimuli without prior experience - Imprinting: a form of rapid learning, typically occurring in a restricted time window after birth, that allows an animal to recognize another animal, person or thing as an object to be emulated and followed - Imprinting is advantageous for mobile species bc it ensures that newborn will remain close to its main source of safety and nourishment- its mother - Imprinting occurs within a critical period after birth - Lorenz suggested that imprinting was a result of evolution - John Bowlby studied mental health of young children who were institutionalized after being separated from their families in world war 2- these children all seemed to go through similar stages after separation from their parents: 1. They became frantic and upset 2. Despaires 3. If no new stable relationship took the place of the one they’d had with their parents, they would eventually become despondent and uninterested in people - Bowlby says that humans don’t imprint, they form a bonding process called attachment - Attachment: social and emotional bond between infant and caregiver that spans both time and space - Infants/young kids view their primary caregivers as a secure base from which they can safely venture out to explore their environment - Harry Harlow tested Bowlby’s theory of attachment by performing experiements with infant rhesus monkeys. - Drive reduction theory: theorized that infants cry for their caregivers because they need caregivers to satisfy their physiological drives, like hunger - Harlow raised infant monkeys in a cage away from their mothers - In the cage were 2 cylinders, meant to be substitutions for their mothers, - one cylinder was made of bare wire and had a baby bottle, while the other didn’t have any nourishment but was covered in soft cloth - the infants spent most of their time on the cloth mother, and only moved to the wire one when they needed food - contact comfort: the comfort that primate babies derive from close physical contact with something soft and warm - they conducted a 2 experiment to see the idea of a caregiver as a secure base. They opened the baby monkeys cage and placed a loud creature in the opening. The scared infants ran to the cloth mothers, but then after reestablishing their bond would inspect the frightening machine. - To foster a secure attachment, a baby needs warm, responsive caregiving, responsive meaning contingent on the baby’s “proximity promoting” signals such as cries, smiles and coos. - Harlow’s experiments exhibit the existence of animal emotions, as well as the importance of the sense of touch and contact comfort in developing animals - Mary ainsworth, one of bowlbys students, conducted her own study called the “Strange situation”- she suggested that attachment status in children was not as simple as being either “attached” or “not attached”- as many as 4 different styles of attachment could be displayed: 1. Securely attached- infants react positively to strangers while a caregiver is present but become unhappy when caregiver leaves. Unlikely to be comforted by the stranger in caregivers absence but become calm when caregiver returns. They use caregiver as a secure base. 2. Disorganized/disoriented attached- children don’t react to the strange situation in a standard way. They may scream when the caregiver is gone, but silently avoid him/her whent hey return, or approach caregiver without looking at them. They fear the caregivers reaction 3. Insecure-resistant attached- uncomfortable in the strange situation, they stay close to caregiver from the start of the test, appearing nervous throughout. They’re upset when their caregiver leaves but aren’t comforted when they return. They seek contact/comfort and cry and struggle agsinst being held. 4. Insecure-avoidant attached- infants don’t have a positive relationship with their caregiver. They pay no attention or avoid caregiver. They may not be uspet with caregiver leaves, but they also may be easily comforted by the stranger. Unlikely to respond positively to caregivers return - Strange situation has 8 events: 1. Experimenter introduces caregiver and infant into unfamiliar room and leaves 2. Caregiver is asked not to initate contact with the child. The experimenter observes the extent to which the infant will explore 3. A stranger enters and spents a minute interacting with the caregiver, before spending a min. trying to interact with the infant, the expiermenter notes the infants reaction to the stranger 4. Caregiver exits room briefly, leaving infant aloen with stranger. Experimenter notes the infants separation anxiety and if he/she can be comforted by the stranger 5. Caregiver re-enters room, pausing by the door. Caregiver attempts to soothe the infant while the stranger exits. Experiment notes infants reaction. 6. Caregiver leaves again, leaving infant fully alone to determine infants separation anxiety when left alone 7. Stranger re-enters and attempts ot comfort the infant if they’re upset, showing if they can be soothed by a stranger in this stuation 8. Caregiver returns, provides comfort if infant is upset, allowing him/her to play if not. Infants reaction to caregiver is of primary interest - A childs cultural environment and other environmental factors all affect how the child behaves - Temperament: each infants individual pattern of behaviours and emotional reactions- referring to individual differences in the way infants respond to the environment, their emotionality and their attentional reactivity - Thomas and Chess definted temperament using scores on 9 different traits: 1. Activity level: amount of movement made by the infant 2. Rhythmicity: predictability of the infants biological rhythms such as sleep patterns and eating. 3. Approach/withdrawal: how the infant responds to unfamiliar stimuli 4. Threshold of responsiveness: intensity required from a stimulus to elicit a response from the infant 5. Intensity of raction: level at which the infant will respond to these stimuli 6. Attention span: relative amount of time spent on an activity once it has begun 7. Distractability: how much a new stimulus interrupts or alters the infant’s behaviours 8. Adaptability: how easily the infant adapts to changes in situation 9. Quality of mood: relative amounts of happy or unhappy behaviorus the infant exhibits - Most babies fit into 3 basic temperament types: 1. Easy babies: playful, exhibits regular biological rhythms, calm and adaptable 2. Difficult baby: irregular in his/her biological rhythms, slow to adjust to new circumstances and can react with intense negativity to novel stimuli 3. The slow to warm up baby: low activity level and can seem difficult at first, but eventually warms up to people and situations after initially reacting to them mildly - Temperament can influence attachment styles in a few ways. - Studies show that insecurely attached infants were more likely to score high on measures of activity and to react strongly to novel stimuli - Insecure avoidant infants were more likely to score low on quality of mood and high on fearfulness - Hard to maintain a warm responsive parenting approach with a difficult baby - Internal working model: specifies whether the infant (then child then adult) will expect others to treat him or her senstiviely and lovingly. Also specifies whether the individual feels himself or herself to be worthy of love and acceptance - Gender recognition begins in the first years of life. Very young children begin to understand gender roles and a belief in gender sterotypes - Between ages of 2-3, most young kids learn to correctly idenfity their own sex and that of others, forming a gender identity - Gender identity: one’s sense of being a male or female, consists primarily of the acceptance of membership in a particular group of people, males or females - Gender roles: culturally specific expectations as to the types of activities each gender should engage in, and the way people of that gender should think - Gender stereotypes: beliefs about differences in personality traits, skills, cognitions and behaviours of males and females - Its common for gender roles to first be placed on young children by their parents - Parents also give their kids gender-appropriate toys, and by the time their 18 months, infants will show a preference for gender sterotyped toys - Some parents show positive and negative responses to gender appropriate and inapproparite play, and children of these parents display more gender specific behavior then those who do not - Teachers may have higher expectation of boys in math or science, and of girls in language courses - There are cognitive differences between males and females that are biological in nature. - Females outperform males on tests of verbal ability at a young age - Males perform better on visuospatial tasks - Visuospatial tasks: tasks used to visually perceive objects and the spatial relationships among objects, such as patterns in closed or open spaces - Relative amounts of androgens, estrogen, and progesterone present in the uterus during pregnancy have also been associated with gender specific play behavior following birth - Friendships between females tend to be more intimate that those between males as they age. Girls prefer interactions in pairs, while boys prefer larger groups - Sexual dimorphism is found in aggressive behavior - The definition of emotion encompasses several components: physiological, cognitive, motivational, behavioural - Emotions: relatively brief displays of feelings made in response to environmental events having motivational significance, or in response to memories of such events. Emotions include physiological, cognitive, and behavioural responses - Our feelings are also affected by emotional cues from others, infants are very sensitive to the social cues of others - Emotion includes physiological responses such as changes in heart rate, perspiration and breathing - Emotion includes cognitive responses- how we interpret and appraise certain situations or stimuli - Emotion also involves our drives such as urge to flee from something that frightens us, or to approach something desirable - 2 main theories about how human emotions develop: - discrete emotions theory: proposes that only a few distinct emotions are biologically based. Since we all biologically have the same sets of emotions, we tend to react in similar ways- has a strong basis in evolutionary theory - between 4-10 basice emotions may be present and distinct at birth. Criteria to determine what constitutes a basic emotion are: 1. basic emotions should be universal within our species 2. they must facilitate a functional response to a specific, prototypical life event 3. they should be evident early in life 4. there should be an innate way of expressing the basic emotion (through face or voice observed across cultures) 5. each basic emotion should have its own physiological basis - discrete emotional theory focuses on 7 basic universal emotions, each of which has a distinctive facial expression - some theorists take a functionalist approach- they argue that the purpose of emotion is to motivate interaction with the environment in order to accomplish goals - according to this, emotions are not fully innate, they are flexible, influenced by social factors and assembled in the moment - to a functionalist, whatever emotion works in a given situation is what develops because it was needed in that moment - embarrassment and shame occur in response to violations of social norms that we internalize through our interactions with others. These emotions also partly depend on the presence and identity of others- an event that embarrasses you in front of a group of pstrangers might be less embarrassing then your friends - emotional self regulation: a process that involves the initiation, suppression, or modulation of the four components of emotion: feelings, physiological states, goals and thoughts- develops slowly and as a result of experience. - in infancy, the ability to regulate one’s emotions is limited. By 6 months, some infants gain ability go soothe themselves when they wake up from sleep. - By 12 months, only between 50-70% of infants are capable of self soothing. - Between 3-6, children grow more effective at regulating their emotional states by employing regulatory strategies, such as distracting themselves or reinterpreting events in more positive ways - Effortful control: the ability to regulate ones responses to external stimuli, it is the ability to inhibit an automatic response and stubstitute a planned or intentional response instead - Adolescents will modulate their expressions of emotion depending on context and the people whom they are with - First signs of peer interaction appear around 6 months - Between 12-18 months, infants enter in reciprocal interactions with each other - At 14 months, children imitate each other and display better memory for peer ations then they do for adult actions - Friendship: relationship between 2 people that is affirmed by each person, based on mutual affection and voluntary rather then based on necessity - Homophily: the tendency to choose to associate with those who are similar to us in some way - Choices in friends are influenced by physical and social homophily - Gender segregation happens at one point, where children tend to be friends with people of the same gender - In adulthood, many people will extend their homophily to political or cultural circles - 5 qualities appear to be important in friendship: 1. common ground activity: kids quickly find activies they can do together and both enjoy 2. clear communication: kids enjoy other children who listen to them and speak in a meaningful way about whatever activities they are engaged in 3. exchange of information: kids exchanging information about themselves with others is also predictive of friendship, more so as children age 4. ability to become a friend: kids who become friends are able to resolve the conflicts they have with one another quickly 5. reciprocity in interactions: if one child does something positive, the other responds appropriately - adolescent relationship are usually more based on mutual acceptance, trust and deeper levels of intimacy - Judith Harris suggests that peer relationships may be the most important socializing factor in our development Week 19 - Evolutionary psychology: concerned with the evolutionary underpinnings of behavior- understanding the adaptive significance and utility of behaviours exhibited by modern humans - DNA: genetic material of all organisms that makes up chromsomes and resembles a twisted ladder - Chromosome: threadlike structures in the nuclei of living cells, contain genes - studies find that identical twins show a greater correspondence in many traits then non-identical twin - sometimes difficult to separate genetic influence from environmental influenes - genetic influence is measured by a statistic called the heritability coefficient (h^2) - heritability: amount of variability in a given trait in a given population at a given time due to genetic factors - an inherited trait can have low or high heritability but a trait that is not inherited always has zero heritability - heritability only refers to the genetic influence on the dispersion of differences of a trait in a population - one gene, one disorder (OGOD) hypothesis: theorizes that one gene is responsible for one disorder, or a single specific gene is the causal agent in a specific disorder - OGOD strategy has not be successful in the area of major mental disorder - Major mental disorders don’t involve single genes of large effect - Human genome project has identirifed a large number of markers on many chromosomes, meaning that association studies can identify genes of modest effect - Pedigree studies haven’t been very imformative because many genes are involved, likely with smaller effects - If the population is homogenous with regard to the environment, heritability estimates wil be higher - If its genetically homogenous, heritability estimates will be lower - Genes that increase an offsprings chances of survival (give additive variance) will become more common in the population (have increased gene dosage) until they no longer add survival value while genes that do not affect survival (have non additive variance) will continue to vary - Evolutionary fitness: the probability that the line of descent from an individual with a specific trait will not die out - if additive genetic variance for fitness related characteristics is present in a species, there is opportunity for further selection - when population reaches maximal fitness, the additive genetic variance is zero. The genes are said to have gone to fixation - identical= monozygotic (MZ) - fraternal= dizygotic (DZ) - MZA= monozygotic, reared apart - Many psychological traits are influenced by genetics, then by the non-shared environment, and then by the shared environment - The non-shared environment has important effects on traits such as intelligence and personality - Shared environment does not. - In twin studies, data on whether twins shared a placenta can be obtrained in order to improve the prescision of the heritability estimate - Behavior has 2 interrelated causes 1. The structure and chemistry of the organism 2. The environment - An organisms structure and chemistry and the way they interact with their environment are a result from the selective pressures of ancestral environments - The ancestral envrionemtn affects individual development, often according to genotype and the current environment elicits particular behaviours - Human nature: range of human behaviours that differentiate mankind from other species, made up of adaptations, which are all behavioural characteristics that are the product of natural selection in ancestral environments - Evolution by natural selection produces adaptations, features of orgnaisms that have particular reproductive and survival functions. - Evolution has no foresight, and humans are not more highly evolved then other animals - Genetic load: the reduction in overall evolutionary fitness for a population compared to what the population would have if all individuals had the most favoured genotype - Misunderstnadings about evolution: - Naturalistic fallacy: determination of what should be based on what is natural, whatever is natural cannot be wrong and we must accept things as they are - Selectionist: the belief that natural selection is the fundamental factor in evolution - Genetic deterministic fallacy: the mistaken belief that if an organism evolves, that evolution is determined by genes rather than an interaction of genes and environment - Behaviors that are determined by the immediate environment are termed facultative (eg. any cross cultural differences in parenting or a collectivist vs. individual orientation) as opposed to obligate behaviours (eg. the experience of sexual attraction, regardless of where its directed) - The pain an individual feels when he falls down is obligate but the pain a child feels when her mother and father divorce is facultative - The pain from falling is felt across cutlture and environment - The pain felt when a parent divorces depends on the marriage and relationship with the rest of the family - Evolutionary theories are environmental and selectionist in orientation - Evolution is not guided, humans are not more evolved then other animals - Cell: contains intstructions for the body - External: external factor (chemical, social), changes how cell expresses its instructions - Altered cell: continue to pass on new instructions, may pass new shape onto next generation - Epigenetic modifications can occur because of environmental experiences - Phenotype: outward expression of a genotype - Adaptation must meet the following 4 criteria: 1. Its obviously designed to accomplish some biological purpose 2. It operates in a similar manner over cultures and time 3. Its plausibly related to reprorductive and survival success in ancestral environemtns 4. Its not more simply explained on other grounds (eg. as a by product of another characteric or adaptation) - Adaptations have historically contributed to the reproductive success (fitness) of individuals or to the reproductive success of indviduals and their relatives (inclusive fitness) - Daly and Wilson argue that our perceptions of self interest evolved as a way to indicate expected gains and losses of fitness - In this view, evolution designed people to desire things and experience emotions that increased their fitness in ancestral environemnts - The tuning of male sexual interest to signs of female reproductive capability strongly indicate that its an adaptation. It meets the 4 criteria of an adaptation: 1. Maximized attraction to and motivates behavior toward reproduvely viable partners 2. Similar over cultures and time 3. Plausibly related to reproductive and survival success in ancestral environments in that men who had this sexual preference system were likely to out reproduce those men who didn’t 4. Its not more parsimoniously explained on other grounds - Parental investment theory: the energy, time, resources and opportunity cost associated with producing offspring - Parental investment cost contrasts with mating opportunity cost, the effort and costs incurred in securing and preserving mating opportunities. - The sex that has the higher potential reproductive rate is under greater selection pressure to compete directly or indirectly for access to members of the other sex - When females incur the larger investment, as in all primates, they are more selective about sexual partners, less competitive among themselves than males are and experience smaller variations in reproductive success - When females incur the smaller investment, as in some seahorse speicies, they fight for access to males, are less discriminating then males, and experience larger variations in reproductive success - A modern theory proposed by Ronald fisher says that the ratio of parental investment in the 2 sexes should be equal. - In mammals, females invest more in offspring than males do because of lactation and internal gestation. Mammals exhibit polygyny to varying degrees - Polygyny: sexual behavior in which one males mates with more then one female, which each female mates with only one male. Some males have multiple female reproductive partners while most have very few or none at all - Degree of polygyny is a species is associated with greater male size - The different size of human males and females and other evidence implies moderate polygyny in the human ancestral environment - Some of the proximal causes of sex differences in mating strategies, risk acceptance and aggression are hormonal - Sex hormones are steroids (lipids) produced from cholesterol - Steroid hormones pass thorugh the cel’s plasma membrane and bind to nuclear membrane receptors inside the cell. Then, the combined steroid hormone receptor complex enters the nucleus, bings to the DNA and acts on genes. - Steroids within cells containing appropariate receptors act on particular genes. Steroid receptors are highly specific and are psychologically interesting due to their highly specific motivational effects. - They act as organizer of foetal neural tissue and as context sensitive activators of biologically significant behaviours thorugh life - Epigamy: a form of sexual selection based on the alteration of appearance in some way that provides greater attraction - Williams argued that exagereated or dominant male characteristsics could evolve as a result of the great care females take in choosing a mate - Males who do not display sexually selected characteristics (eg. long tail, are too young, bad genes, or have a set of genes that is not resistant to current pathogens) - The 2 form of sexual selection involves competition between individuals of the same sex- intrasexual selection - Intrasexual selection produces characteristics that provide reproductive advantages, sometimes even to the detriment of survival advantages - because of sex differences in parental investment, males are often subjected to sexual selection pressures of both types - another important outcome of sexual selection is the evolution of male conditional strategies - individuals are genetically the same but adopt different behavioural tactics, depending on conditions they encounter during their lifetimes - the proper unit of selection: the gene - Hamilton recognized that although altruists may be less likely to leave progeny than non-altruists, altruistic genes can be selected for and increase in frequency - Oganisms share varying numbers of their segregating or polymorphic genes with their relatives by common descent - Mathematics of inheritance: - First degree relatives (parents, offspring, siblings) share 50% - 2 degree relative( nieces, nephews, uncles and aunts, half siblings, grandparents/grandchildren) share 25% - 3 degree relatives (cousing and great grandchildren) share 12.5% of their genes - inclusive fitness: reproductive success of those who share common genes - ego (self) is worth at least 2 children, 4 nieces, or 8 cousins. - Nepotistic: tendency to favour relatives over non-relatives regardless of circumstances - Animals act not only to increase their own fitness but also those of their relatives - Alexander, Daly and Wilson and trivers describe human and non-human examples of nepotistic behavior - We expect nepotistic variation in crimes - Homicide victims are unlikely to be biologically related to their killers. - Altruism is not nepotistic - Reciprocal altruism: altruism in which people behave altruistically toward one another because they are confident tha such acts will be reciprocated toward either them or their kin - Game theory: mathematical approach used to study and predict the evolution of social itneractions - Robert frank developed an evolutionary model that predicts that the proportion of altruistic and non-altruistic individuals in a population will stabilize at a value determined by the costs and accuracy of identifying defectors, or explotative individuals - Mothers and their offspring share 50% of their polymorphic genes by common descent - The immune system of the mother must be prevented from attacking the foreign element (the paternal genome in the foetus). This is accomplished in part by the placenta which doesn’t display the human leukocyte antigen markers and thus protexts the foetus from the maternal immune system. - David Haig says- because the mother and foetus don’t have identical genetic interests, there is opportunity for competition between them - The hormones that maintain pregnancy are initially produced by the mother, but by day 50, the foetus produces them in large quantities - Foetus attempts to maximize its share of each maternal meal thorugh raising the mothers blood pressure - Maternal-paternal gene conflicts can occur when females commonly mate with mor ehtne one mate. - Paul Ekman says there are 6 basic human emotions; 1. Surprise 2. Happiness 3. Anger 4. Fear 5. Disgust 6. Sadness - Jealous is an example of a complex emotion that is expressed differently in different cultures or environemnts. - Evolutionary competition led to psychologies that maximized reproductive success - Males and females look for different characteristics in potential partners Males - Interested in partner novelty - Desired the opposite sex to the extent they appear fertile - Sexually jealous based on the extent of resources devoted to the partner - Socially and materially ambitious Females - Interested in the emotional commitment of the partner - Evaluated the health, status and resources of the potential partner - Concerned about the observed pattern of generosity shown by the potential partner Week 20 - Motivation: a general term for phenomena that affect the nature, strength, and persistence of an individual’s behavior- the desires, needs and interests that arouse and activate an organism to move toward a specific goal - Drive: a reversible internal condition that affects the nature strength, and persistence of an individual’s behavior - We consider animals to be in a motivational state or experiencing a particular drive - Psychologists classify drives as regulatory and nonregulatory. - Regulatory: hunger, thirst, thermoregulation, and sleep that help to maintain physiological homeostasis and are needed for our immediate survival - Homeostasis: the tendency of an animal to regulate its internal conditions (eg. temperature, glucose levels, osmotic pressure of cells), by a system of feedback controls (like hunger and eating, thirst and drinking, shivering and putting on a sweater), so as to optimize health and functioning) - Nonregulatory: fulfill other evolutionary purpose, such as reproduction, safety or cooperation - Motivational states are energizing, they direct an animal to act and direct behavior toward a goa – (eg. hunger- an internal state, motivates eating- an external action) - Motivational states help animals sustain their behavior until they achieve their goal - Peter Gray classifies the following as nonregulatory drives: 1. Safety (drives such as sleep and fear that motivate us to replenish our bodies and avoid danger) 2. Reproductive (sexual, maternal, and sexual jealousy drives that motivate us to reproduce, care for our young, and guard our mates) 3. Social (approval and acceptance drives that motivate us to cooperate) 4. Educative (play and exploration, which motivate us to practive our skills and learn about our environments) - Nonregulatory drives contribute to our survival in an indirect manner - Drives or motivational states are reward seeking states, and motivated behavior is reinforced by the pleasure we experience once the reward has been obtained - The reward system is related to the limbic system, especially structures located in the basal forebrain (middle of the head, and behind the eyes) - In 1950s, James Olds and peter milner discovered that rats would quickly learn to press a lever for electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB). - electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB): applying small electrical shocks to different parts of the brain- a brief electrical current delivered through electrode implanted in their brains - they responded at high rates for long periods to receive ESB. - Even hungry rats chose the lever that delivered ESB as opposed to food - Animals can be motivated by rewards that have no obvious value for survival and drive reduction (ie. a nonregulatory drive) - Researchers have used ESB to map our neural reward centres - Two subcortical structures are especially important: 1. the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) 2. the nucleus accumbens of the basal ganglia - denis Dutton and steven pinker argue that aesthetic pursuits are vicatrious means to satisfy other drives (eg. reproductive and social). These achievements demonstrate skill and creativity and are associated with high status, which can make one more competitive as a mate - psychologists see the same motivational mechanisms operating in a more complex brain - according to central state theory, certain hubs or nuclein in the brain involve detection of imbalances (eg. detecting low levels of energy/glucose,salt), decision making (executing a plan to seek food and salt), and motor output (actions needed for hunting and food gathering) - you may not be aware that your body is low on salt, but you might suddenly crave potato chips or other salty foods - the hypothalamus serves as a central drive system - the hypothalamus senses internal states, such as levels of glucose, hydration, salts and internal temperature, responds to hormone levels, and is connected to the pituitary gland, so it can orchestrate the release of hormones - lesions in the hypothalamus lead to dysregulation in drives such as feeding, temp, salt balance… - drive reduction theory: proposes that a drive produces an unpleasant state that causes an organism to engage in motivated behaviours. Reduction of drive is reinforcing - the actions that organisms take to fulfill drives gets complicated. - If internal fluid balance gets too low, we are motivated to drink- we feel thirsty - The drive for homeostasis can create thirst, but multipl layers of reward systems help us determine what to drink - Central state theory can explain why we feel some needs or are motivated to resolve them, but its only one of the many reward systems, and cant explain specific action that we take- it explains the drive but not the incentives that lead us to solve a need in a specific way - External (intrinsic nonregulatory) motivators can override apparent homeostatic mechanisms. (ie. many people will do anything for money even though money doesn’t change a homeostatic need) - Intrinsic incentives result from an internal need, whereas extrinsic incentives result from gaining a reward or avoiding an unpleasant consequence - Both types of motivation affect our effort and persistence in working towards a goal - You perform an act that is intrinsically motivated because the act is satisfying in and of itself. - You perform actions that extrinsically motivated either to achieve a reward or to avoid something aversive. - The over-justification effect: this hypothesis predicts that people who shift from intrinsic to extrinsic rewards for engaging in an activity will stop the activity if the extrinsic reward is removed. This cessation of previously enjoyable behavior is the over justification effect - Sometimes extrinsic incentives can reduce motivation - Both internal and external factors underlie eating behavior - Cannon and washburn tested the hypothesis of hunger pangs by having a participant (washburn) swallow a balloon that was attached to a device that measured pressure inside the balloon. Stomach contractions caused changed in the balloons shape, which were measured on the device. Stomach contractions coincided with feelings of hunger, and inflating the balloon alleviated the sense of hunger - However, there is a problem with this conclusion that stomach cues “cause” hunger. You can still feel hungry even if your stomach has been removed. - Stomach fullness doesn’t influence feelings of satiety, pressure sensors keep you from eating until you burst. Neural sensors also signal the nutritive value of food and influence the sense of satiety. Other biological factors affect our sense of hunger and satiety, including glucose and fat levels - Most foods are ultimately converted into glucose - Decreasing glucose levels leads to a sense of hunger - Injecting glucose into the bloodstream decreases the sense of hunger - The body also monitors levels of a hormone called leptin that is secreted by fat cells - Frolich noted that some patients with damage to the hypothalamus became obese very quickly, suggesting that the hypothalamus might regulate homeostatic mechanisms of hunger - Researchers have identified the arcuate nucleus (in the hypothalamus near the pituitary gland) as the “appetite control center”. This nucleus contains 2 types of neurons that when stimulated have opposite effects on eating, one stimulates feeding behavior and the other suppresses it - These neurons are the target sites of hormones that provide body-state cues for regulating food consumption (eg. the hormones peptide YY from intestinal cells; leptin from fat cells). The hypothalamic cells communicate with other parts of the brain, via different neurotransmitters to either stimulate or suppress food consumption - The time of day has a profound impact on hunger. We get hungry around noon, because we know that’s when lunchtime is. - We eat more when we are around others who are eating as well. - We eat more of good tasting and good looking food then bad tasting and bad looking food - Most of our food choices are driven by something other then nutrition. - Dana Small performed an experiment where she measured the brain activity of chocolate lovers using a positron emission tomography. She found that as the reward value decreased, the primary gustatory areas of the brain (areas processing the taste of food) became less active - Researchers have shown that: 1. Animals are highly motivated to turn on stimulating electrodes implanted in their medial forebrain bundle (MFB) and nucleus accumbens 2. Recording electrodes in these structures become active when animals receive food and other rewards when performing various tasks 3. When the two structures are destroyed, animals stop working to obtain rewards - ESB is so rewarding that it can motivate rats to move in response to electrical signals sent to their brains. 2 electrodes are placed in the somatosensory cortex of the rat’s brain, one in each cortical hemisphere, in the region sensitive to the whiskers or each side of the face (ie. the whisker region of the rat’s homunculus). These electrodes are used to signal the animal to move right or left with stimulation to the whiskers correct sides. - Sexual motivation isn’t based solely on reproduction. Testosterone, an androgen, increases sexual motivation in men, but doesn’t determine the object of sexual desire - ***textbook page. 418!! Ray Blanchard and Anthony Bogaert studied a large sample of gay and straight men. On average, gay men have more biological older brothers then straight men. This birth order effect is present even when brothers grow up in separate homes (eg. adopted) - the birth order effect is the product of the interaction between genes and the prenatal environment - emotion: a relatively brief display of a feeling made in response to environemtnal events having motivational significance or in response to memories of such events - according to this, feelings and emotions are synonymous - Antonio Damasio separates feelings from emotions. He argues that emotions are internal reactions that occur automatically and unconsciously in response to certain stimuli, while feelings occur when neural reactions become conscious. - emotions are the affective component and feelings the cognitive component - carroll Izard found that people in different cultures generate and recognize the same basic emotional expressions. - Paul Ekman identified 7 basic emotions: 1. Happiness 2. Sadness 3. Surprise 4. Fear 5. Anger 6. Contempt 7. Disgust - Most people can identify at least 6 basic emotions: 1. Anger 2. Happiness 3. Disgust 4. Surprise 5. Sadness 6. Fear - People from different cultures display similar facial expressions when experiencing particular emotions - Emotion makes sense of or finds meaning in limited information, just like perception, memory and the other distributed brain functions - Emotion happens mostly in the frontal cortex- integrating sensation with memory and other sources of meaning- but the word emotion covers information received from separate neural systems that have evolved - Aristotle mentions gesture- the information we use to identify emotions is not limited to facial expression. - James-Lange theory: James suggested that the emotional response occurs after the ANS response. Each emotion has its own specific pattern of ANS arousal, and our brain reads this pattern to interpret the current emotional state - the ANS communicates a quality of an emotion to the brain, which then interprets it. - The cannon-bard theory: proposes that the brain controls emotion, and the ANS response is coincidental to the emotional state. This is a “Central” theory of emotion. Its based on the idea that most physiological changes occur too slowly to trigger an emotional reaction. - This theory encouraged further research in the field exploring the basis of emotion in the brain - The schachter two-factor theory: we label our autonomic nervous system responses cognitively. Its important that we are aroused, so we label the emotion associated with this arousal according to the situation we are currently in - According to this, ANS responses to fear and sexual desire are similar (eg. increased heart rate). - In Schacters study, people were given a drug that resulted in arousal and then placed in different situations. The individuals reported emotional state was related to the situation he or she was in - This effect only occurred if they were not told what the effect of the drug was. If participants knew the drug would be arousing, they would attribute their arousal to the drug, not to the emotional state - Dutton and aron conducted a creative test of Schacter’s two-factory theory. They asked attractive female confederate to approach male undergraduates for help with a survey. She gave them her phone number in case they had questions. The interaction happened on one of 2 bridges, one on a sturdy bridge, and the other half of the time on a swaying bridge. Only 30 percent of the males on the sturdy bridge called her but 60 percent of the swaying bridge called her. This is bc the men on the swaying bridge were more aroused then men on the sturdy bridge and mistook their arousal from the unsteady bridge for the arousal they experienced from physical attraction to the female - Confederate: an individual who takes part in a study knowing the true focus of the study and playing a part, acting in a predetermined role - The basic premise of the facial feedback theory is if you want to feel happy, put on a happy face. People who are coached to show an emotional expression show physiological signs that are consistent with the emotion - Sensory feedback and cognitive factors play a role in defining an emotional response - The limbic system play an important role in regulation of emotion and motivation - Theories of emotion assume that the brain can assess the significance of stimuli to a person rapidly even unconsciously and generate various physiological responses. - Amygdala plays an important role in negative emotions, such as fear and anger. - Amygdala: a cluster of nuclei underneath the cerebral cortex, in the termporal lobe. Its part of an interconnected set of brain structures known as the limbic system - Kluver and Bucy demonstrated the amygdala’s role in emotion by removing the amygdala and portions of the termporal lobe of rhesus monkeys. This interfered with the monkeys ability to process the physicological significance of stimuli. - Research on the prefrontal cortex suggests that this region plays a role in our conscious experience of emotions and more thoughtful and deliberative responses to those emotions - Incentive theory of motivation: suggests that people are motivated to do things because of external rewards. (ie. willing to go to work every morning, because of the monetary compensation you know you will receive) Week 21 - Personality: a particular pattern of behavior and thinking that prevails across time and situations and differentiates one person from another - Minor changes don’t really affect what we think of as personality - Personality is a consistent pattern of thoughts, feelings and behavior that characterize each person as a unique individual. - For different personality perspectives: 1. Trait theories (raymond cattell): personality is a composite of 16 personality factors; each one is a continuum with opposite traits on each end. Theorists reduced this to 5 core traits: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. 2. Psychodynamic (Sigmund Freud):  identified 3 components of personality: the ID (I want it now), the ego (lets work out a compromise) and the superego (good people don’t do that)  explain personality and behvaiour in terms of internal drives and forces 3. Humanistic (Rogers and Maslow): rejecting the deteriminism of the other theories, these models emphasize free will and self development, for humanists, drive toward self actualization is an important force in personality development, expectations placed on us by other may distort our personality and behavior 4. Social-cognitive/behavioural (B.F. Skinner): personality is a group of learned habits and responses which are the product of operant and classical conditioning, thoughts and cognition do not play a part in this view of personality, they are influenced by the environment - Elements that made for a good intelligence test include: standardization, reliability, validity - Objective tests:  Minnesota multiphasic inventory (MMPI-2) is an objective personality test that asks people to answer a series of true/false questions about themselves  NEO personality inventory (n=neuroticism, e=extroversion, o=openness) measures personality factors. Provides a series of statements that a person agrees or disagrees with a 5 point scale - Diagnostic tests: the Rorschach test is the best known projective test. A series of inkblots is presented and the person describes what they see in the inkblot. The person may project their personality onto the inkblot. - Many consultants use variants of the Myers-Briggs type indicator (MBTI). Created by Carl Jung, this test identifies personality types and cognitive styles - Thematic Apperception test (TAT) is a projective test where the person makes up stories about a series of ambiguous pictures presented on cards - Trait perspective is the classic approach to the psychological study of personality - trait approach classifies and describes psychological characteristics by which people differ consistently between situations and over time. - Gordon allport identified 18,000 English adjectives that could describe an individuals personality - Raymond cattell narrowed the list to 16 core traits through factor analysis - Factor analysis: statistical analysis that examines all of the correlations between all of the items and determines if any of them are highly correlated with each other - Factors: a general type or category that contributes to an outcome - Factor analysis is used to reveal factors or basic dimensions that underlie a questionnaire data set - Cattell proposed 16 factors that he believed described all possible personalities a) Reserved- warm b) Concrete-abstract c) Reactive- emotionally stable d) Deferential- dominant e) Serious-lively f) Expedient- rule-conscious g) Shy- socially bold h) Utilitarian- sensitive i) Trusting- vigilant j) Grounded- abstracted k) Forthright- private l) Self assured- apprehensive m) Traditional- open to change n) Group oriented- self reliant o) Tolerates disorder- perfectionist p) Relaxed- tense - 16 PF questionnaire: multiple choice personality questionnaire developed by Cattell to measure 16 normal adult personality dimensions- consists of almost 200 statements regarding specific aspects of behavior - 5 factor model is the best trait model and the dominant approach used today to measure and study personality - “the big 5”: 5 personality dimensions derived from analyses of the natural language terms people use to describe themselves and others - the NEO-PI-3 is the 2010 version of the NEO personality inventory which contains 240 statements to which people respond on a 5 point scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree - personality is stable and becomes less likely to change as you grow older. Some degree of change can happen in response to a major life event. - The big 5 reliably and significantly predicts behavior- they are valid. We all have some measure of each of the 5 traits! - There is the possibility of a “dark triad” of personality traits that might correspond with hereditability of aggression or social interactions - The conscientiousness trait includes 2 closely related factors: one that emphasizes methodical planning and organization and another that focuses on perseverance, achievement and goals - Personality is affected by the interaction between genetics and the environment - We also behave according to our social norms and environmental cues - An individual who is difficult tends to elicit negative feedback from others, creating a more negative environment. We can’t separate genetics or the environment from personality development - Sigmund freud: Viennese physician who proposed that all human behavior is motivated by instinctual drives triggered by events in a persons life - Psychodynamic: term of psychological theories that
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