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PSYC 100 Exam 2 (Final) 2012

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Queen's University
PSYC 100

1Week 13The difference between language and communication is that language is defines as a socially agreed rulegoverned system of arbitrary symbols that cam be used t communicate ideas and feeling about both present time and place and other times and places real or imaginedHuman language is able to meet the following three criteria primarily because of its high complexity and variability3 key properties of the human language are semanticity generativity and displacement Semanticity is a form of communication that is only as useful as it is meaningful it refers to the extent which a form of communication can meaningfully represent ideas events and object Generativity is the ability to use a limited number of words and a few rules to combine words into a virtually unlimited number of sentences Displacement refers to the ability to use language to convey messages that are not tied to tin immediate context time and placeHumans used language to communicate information about events in the past or future or at some other locationHow is speech producedThe ability to produce speech is a motor skillSpeech requires fast movement of the articulators mouth structures that make speech sounds jaw tongue lips soft palate the way your articulators form to make a particular soundCoarticulation information about speech sounds is spread over time this is when articulators are not involved in the current sound and are therefore free to take up the position and get ready for the next sound it is involved withyour brain can anticipate what you are going to say next so your articulators that are not involved with the current sound you are making gets ready to make the next soundCategorical Perception Another cognitive phenomenon characteristic of language was though to demonstrate that language is somehow special and different from other cognitive abilitiesThis phenomenon is categorical perceptionIt depends on knowledge and experience and allows us to perceive sounds as one phoneme or another when in reality the sound might be quite ambiguous It is much easier to discriminate amongst things than to label them Skills required in learning how to readThere are two different ways a reader can approach a written text by sounding out wordsphonetic reading or by reading by sight whole word readingReaders also bring knowledge and skills to the textKnowledge of morphology can help the reader to break a work into smaller units A readers vocabulary also plays a part in comprehending a textKnowledge of the word also plays a key role in comprehending a text First we learn the letters of the alphabet and the sounds that they can make than we begin to analyze phonemes in a way that are not required for language comprehension Language sequence development Infants respond to IDT infant directed talk as earl as one month of ageThe heavy use of tone in IDT plays a large role in its communicative function and may help infants distinguish encouragement before they understand the words being used2 At 12 months children begin to only recognize phonemes from their own language and their brain and language becomes more adultlikeBetween 8 and 10 weeks infants being cooing which is making their first speech like sounds AT around 7 months infants being babbling this is when they mix consonants and vowels togetherWhen infants being to speak and recognize language they are pace with the new challenge of problem reference which is how does one begin to make sense of words when they are surrounded by dozens of objects that speaker could be referring to when they have no point of reference and canon ask for calcification Between the ages of 10 and 15 months most infants produce their firs discernable wordAt this time children will generally overextend words which is generalizing the words they know to a wider variety of contexts than is appropriate all men are dada they will also under extend meaning that only their ball is a ball Around 18 months children will be able to produce around 50 words and around this age children will go into a frenzy of naming things and word learning a phase call the vocabulary spurtAt this point children will also start to string together words this is called telegraphic speech because it only includes the essential parts of the message By the age of 6 children are often speaking full and grammatical sentences and will be able to exchange ideas with other through conversations and may know over 10000 words Theories of language acquisitionNativism the development of language encompasses a process simply too complex to be the product of environmental learning alone o Children are born with an innate knowledge of universal grammar the basic features that are part of all the worlds languages o There is no learning involved in early language acquisition we have no more control at this time over the growth of our linguistic understanding that we do over the growth of our bodies though we require exposure to words as the body requires food o Evidence that the nativist theorist have found is the existence of critical period which are times in development during which the brain is extremely responsive to learning a specific try of knowledge Interactionist theorist view language acquisition either as a product of either child social environment or as a learning experience guided by the infants themselveso They recognize that there are biological factors involved in language development but place much more emphasis one environment and learning o Some interactionists view development of language as springing from the growth of the infants capacity for cognition these cognitive interactionists view grammar as being a property that emerges from the complexity of a growing vocabulary rather than the biologically endowed universal grammar supported by nativist o Other interactionists emphasize language as a social process the function of language is to communicate which makes it a social process by nature these theorist argue that the social environment is structure in a way that is based off of the use of language and thus provides an environment that is by nature very conducive to language development Language learning in atypical environments Genie was locked in a room for 11 years rarely fed or spoken to and was regularly physically abusedWhen she was rescued at the age of 13 she could not speak properlyOver year of treatment her ability to speak and care for herself improved slightly but never to much that she was able to live without extensive special care3 In a school for deaf children most of the teachers and students have no exposure to formalized sign languages like ASL This created the to cobble together a rough language of their own from the informal gestures they has sued to communicate up to that point in their livesDeaf babies will go through many of the same stages as hearing babies like cooing until about 5 or 6 monthsDeaf babies in the homes of ASL speakers will begin to babble right on schedule but their babbling occurs in the form of simple repetitive hand movementInfants born in bior multilingual sfamilies appear to learn both languages effortlessly and simultaneously and seem to be able to distinguish their two languages from very early onAnimal language The horse was not communication at all but was reading subtle movements made by the master and would stop tapping his hoof in response to these movements This mistake is called the Clever Hans effectIt is possible that other primates share out capacity to learn language they just for whatever reason didnt develop it spontaneously the way humans didChimps have been taught to use sign language fulfilling the semanticity property of language They have also been able to use consistent and meaningful word orders but not full evidence of generativity they have been able to make request answer request by pushing buttons on a screen In approximately 70 of songbirds males will sing more than one song while some birds have as many as 1000 different songs that they learn and use Birds have specialized areas in their brains like humans for producing songs and processing the songs of otherThis is an example of convergent evolutions where through the process of natural selection two unrelated species converge on a similar solutionWeek 14 DNA DNA is the genetic make up of our body The DNA structure resembles that of a twisted ladderStrands of sugar and phosphate are connected by rungs made from nucleotide molecules of adenine thymine guanine and cytosineGenes Small unites of DNA that direct the synthesis of proteins and enzymes They are regions of chromosomes that encode particular proteinsThe point on the chromosome where a particular gene is located is called the locusChromosomes Threadlike structures in the nuclei of living cells which contain genes Genotype refers to the actual genetic makeup of a trait while phenotype refers to how the trait is expressedFor example a person with brown eyes could be shown as Bb or BB in this case they have same phenotype brown but different genotypeA dominant trait is the trait that is exhibited when an individual possesses heterozygous alleles in brown eyes with BbA recessive trait occurs when it is expressed by homozygous alleles blue eyes bbHeterozygouswhen the occupying loci on the two chromosomes are different BbHomozygous when the occupying loci on the two chromosomes are the same BB
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